Infectious Diseases 2020

Infectious Diseases 2020

A novel integron-borne aminoglycoside resistance gene

Microbiome 2020; 8: 41 29 March, 2020

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are critically important for treating several types of infections with multi-resistant bacteria. A completely new resistance gene, which is likely to counteract the newest aminoglycoside-drug plazomycin, was recently discovered by scientists in Gothenburg, Sweden.
The bacterial gene the team discovered in river sediment from India does not resemble any known antibiotic resistance gene. The gene is named gar as it provides resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics that carry a garosamine group (garosamine-specific aminoglycoside resistance) after its specificity. The gene occurs in three sequenced, multi-resistant clinical isolates (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one Luteimonas sp.) from Italy and China, respectively, as well as in two food-borne Salmonella enterica isolates from the USA. In all cases, gar has escaped discovery until now. This is the first time a novel resistance gene, present in clinical isolates, has been discovered by exploring the environmental microbiome.
This is the case for the newest aminoglycoside drug, plazomycin, developed to circumvent most existing aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms. Since the gene appears to be not yet common in the clinics, the data presented here enables early surveillance and maybe even mitigation of its spread.