Infectious Diseases 2022

Infectious Diseases 2022

HPAI in the USA

15 May, 2022 Summary of HPAI cases in commercial and backyard flocks in the USA. Read More

HPAI confirmed in 3 baby red foxes in Michigan

12 May, 2022 The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) received confirmation that three red fox kits died from highly pathogenic avian influenza – the state’s first such confirmation of the HPAI virus in wild mammals. The fox kits, collected between April 1 and April 14, came from three separate dens in Lapeer, Macomb and St. Clair counties.
The DNR had received a report from a wildlife rehabilitator in southeastern Michigan about the fox kits exhibiting neurologic signs of HPAI before death. The kits were observed circling, tremoring and seizing. Two of the three died within hours of intake, while one appeared to respond to supportive therapy but then died in care. Interestingly, an additional kit that was a sibling of the Macomb County kit did survive, but developed blindness, making her non-releasable. This kit will be housed at a local nature center. Read More

Wild fox in Minnesota tests positive for HPAI

11 May, 2022 A wild fox from Anoka County has tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). This is the first confirmed case of HPAI in a wild mammal in the USA. The University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory alerted the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), which is responsible for monitoring the health of the state’s wildlife. The National Veterinary Services Laboratory later confirmed the positive test earlier this week. Read More

HPAI (H5N1) virus detected in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ontario

5 May, 2022 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the Animal Health Laboratory, the CWHC ON/NU diagnosed influenza A (H5N1) in 2 wild fox kits in Ontario, on May 2, 2022. These cases represent the first detections of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage in wild mammals in Ontario, Canada and in the Americas. One was dead and one had severe neurologic symptoms and died shortly after admission. H5N1 was found in brain tissue samples, and officials said the virus was likely the cause of death. Read More

Prevalence and levels of Campylobacter in broiler chicken in Ireland in 2017–2018

International Journal of Food Microbiology 372 (2022) 3 May, 2022 An up-to-date data on Campylobacter carriage and carcass contamination in Irish broilers - a new study. Monthly samples were collected from the three largest broiler processing plants in Ireland over a twelve-month period. Samples were taken from both first and final thin birds (partial and full depopulation) from 358 batches of broilers. From each batch, a composite sample of 10 caecal contents (n = 358) and 5 neck skins (n = 1790) were collected and numbers of Campylobacter in each sample were determined. Of the 1790 neck skin samples tested, 53% were Campylobacter positive.
Campylobacter was detected in the caecal contents of 66% of all batches tested. Depopulation and/or age had a significant effect on Campylobacter prevalence with 67% of final thin broilers yielding Campylobacter-positive neck skin samples in contrast to 38% of first thin broilers that yielded positive neck skin samples. Read More

Study: >25% of study participants contaminated salad with raw poultry

Journal of Food Protection (2022) 85 (4): 615–625. 2 May, 2022 In a study aimed at assessing the impact of washing poultry on kitchen contamination, researchers found that more than a quarter of study participants contaminated salad with raw poultry – including many study participants who did not wash the poultry.
The study highlights the importance of hand-washing and cleaning and sanitizing the kitchen in order to reduce the risk of foodborne illness when cooking at home.
This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a consumer poultry washing educational intervention that included video observation of meal preparation with participants who self-reported washing poultry. Treatment group participants received three e-mail messages containing information that the U.S. Department of Agriculture has used on social media sites (video and infographics) related to poultry preparation, including advising against washing chicken. Read More

HPAI virus incursions in Germany during 2020-21

King et al (2022) Virus Evolution, 8(1): 1–7 30 April, 2022 A new study aims to portray a comprehensive (phylo-) genetic analysis of all detected sub- and genotypes from the 2020–21 HPAIV season in Germany. Since the first incursion into Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N8 of clade 2.3.4.4b in 2016,Germany has seen a whole series of novel incursions with distinct reassortants. From October 2020 to July 2021, five different subtypes (H5N8, H5N5, H5N1, H5N4, and H5N3) and seven genotypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4b were detected in a broad array of avian hosts in Germany. Read More

Colorado: A Human HPAI H5 infection

29 April, 2022 The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment has been monitoring and testing people exposed to poultry and wild birds infected with avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. Earlier this week, a test revealed the presence of the H5 virus in a single nasal specimen from a person who was working on a farm with infected poultry. CDC confirmed the result on April 27, 2022. Repeat testing on the person was negative for influenza.
The adult male, who is younger than 40, is largely asymptomatic, reporting only fatigue. He is now isolating and receiving the influenza antiviral drug oseltamivir per CDC guidance. Read More

Mexico: Outbreak of HPAI H7N3 in two farms in Coahuila

24 April, 2022 The National Service for Agrifood Health, Safety and Quality (Senasica), confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N3 in two commercial poultry production buildings (Broiler breeders) in the municipality of General Cepeda, Coahuila. Laboratory tests carried out in Senasica laboratories confirmed that the outbreak corresponds to the strain that has existed in some regions of Mexico since 2012. An immediate slaughter of 70,000 birds was ordered. Read More

Avian influenza in the Netherlands

Source: Wageningen University & Reasearch 22 April, 2022 In the avian influenza season of 2021/2022, multiple highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infections on Dutch poultry farms have been identified by Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR). To prevent the virus from spreading, the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) has culled the animals at these farms. Read More

HPAI in Great Britain

22 April, 2022 High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Great Britain during the epizootic since 1 October 2021 Read More

Why turkeys are highly susceptible to HPAI?

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2022.198771 21 April, 2022 Turkeys, the third major poultry species in the world, are known to show broad susceptibility to various avian influenza viruses (AIVs).
In Europe and North America, where turkey consumption is popular, outbreaks of high and low pathogenicity avian influenza in turkeys have been frequently documented. To elucidate the molecular basis of the broad susceptibility of turkeys to duck and chicken AIVs, a new study characterized various receptors for AIVs on their tissues. Read More

A synergistic effect between MDV and REV

Front Vet Sci . 2022 Mar 22 21 April, 2022 Coinfection of viruses generally influences the disease pattern compared with a single infection. The outcome of coinfection usually is viral interference. Besides interference, coinfections of viruses may also enhance viral replication and virulence. Coinfection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes synergistic pathogenic effects and serious losses to the poultry industry. Read More

Gizzard erosions in broiler chickens in Sweden

21 April, 2022 Investigation of the first outbreaks of adenoviral gizzard erosions (AGE) in Sweden is described in a paper published in Av Path (11 Apr 2022).Lesions consistent with AGE (detached koilin layers, discolouration, bleeding, erosions) were identified in gizzards in five flocks. The demonstration of FAdV species A, serotype 1, in organ and tissue samples, and identification of typical histopathological lesions in gizzards, strongly indicates that the virus was the underlaying cause of the observed gizzard lesions. Read More

HPAI in Pennsylvania, USA

17 April, 2022 The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture confirmed the state's first positive case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in domestic poultry, in two flocks of commercial layer chickens on a Lancaster County. Read More

HPAI detected in Quebec, another in Ontario

14 April, 2022 Avian influenza has been confirmed at two sites in Quebec and another in Ontario. A farm in St-Claude, was found positive to the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of avian influenza. The company, Brome Lake Ducks, says the farm is a breeding duck farm. CFIA also said it had confirmed high-path H5N1 avian influenza in another commercial poultry flock and imposed a quarantine at Markham, Ont., just north of Toronto. Two other separate poultry flocks at Markham were confirmed with the virus last week. Read More

HPAI in Montana

9 April, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the first two outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in two flocks in Montana – a non-commercial, backyard flock (poultry) in Cascade County, and a non-commercial, backyard flock (non-poultry) in Judith Basin County. Read More

Pathogenicity of the QX-type IBV to different segments of the oviduct

8 April, 2022 The QX-type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has become the predominant genotype worldwide in recent years and has caused serious economic losses to the chicken industry. The most significant feature of QX IBV is that its infection in the early growing stage can cause abnormal oviduct development, resulting in a high proportion of ‘false layers’ in poultry flocks of laying hens and breeders. However, few studies have evaluated whether infections of QX-type IBV in laying stages can also cause severe pathological changes in the oviduct.
In new study, 300-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected either with the QX-type strain QXL or Massachusetts (Mass)-type strain M41 to compare their pathogenicity on different segments of the oviduct. Read More

HPAI: to vaccinate or not to vaccinate

4 April, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture is looking into vaccines as an option to protect poultry against deadly avian influenza, the agency’s chief veterinary officer, Rosemary Sifford said.
The USDA's Agricultural Research Service is investigating the potential for a vaccine that could be distinguished from the wild type of virus spread to poultry, Rosemary Sifford said in an interview. Read More

USA: HPAI in graphics

4 April, 2022 In total, from the beginning of February 2022 until today (4/03), 117 outbreaks were reported. The total number of U.S. states reporting HPAI in birds has reached twenty-four states, depopulating more than 22 million birds. Read More

HPAI in Texas

3 April, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial pheasant flock (poultry) in Erath County, Texas. Read More

Canada: Avian influenza found at southern Ontario poultry farms

31 March, 2022 On March 27, 2022, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI), subtype H5N1, in a poultry flock in southern Ontario. Read More

Iowa: more cases of HPAI

30 March, 2022 The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed two positive cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Iowa. The confirmed cases were in a commercial turkey flock in Hamilton County, Iowa and a commercial layer flock in Guthrie County, Iowa. Read More

Mass mortality of Pelicans observed in Greece due to HPAI

28 March, 2022 A major outbreak of avian influenza has struck the Prespa National Park in north-western Greece. Particularly hard hit have been the Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus), whose colony at Lake Prespa is the largest in the world.
The Society for the Protection of Prespa (SPP) reports that the mass mortality of birds started around mid of February, about a week after the first pelicans had arrived in Prespa from their wintering grounds in Turkey and North-Eastern Greece. In a bit more than a week, a total of 209 Dalmatian pelican corpses were recorded in the colony. Moreover, many still living birds displayed neurological symptoms.
On the first days of March 574 Dalmatian pelicans were dead already. All pelicans were adult birds in breeding plumage and the carcasses were located on the nesting islands or close by in the water. Read More

The Intercontinental spread HPAI H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4 virus to the United States, 2021

26 March, 2022 In a new study published in the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emerging Infectious Diseases, researchers detected Eurasian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus belonging to the Gs/GD lineage, clade 2.3.4.4b, in wild waterfowl in 2 Atlantic coastal states in the United States. Bird banding data showed widespread movement of waterfowl within the Atlantic Flyway and between neighboring flyways and northern breeding grounds.
Data reported in the study, in combination with the recent highly pathogenic AIV findings in Newfoundland, Canada, suggest that wild bird surveillance captured the introduction of a Eurasian-origin highly pathogenic AIV into wild birds by the Atlantic Flyway of the United States. The potential introduction pathway probably includes wild bird migratory routes from northern Europe that overlap Arctic regions of North America and then dispersal farther south into Canada and the United States. Read More

Campylobacter infections in France in 2020

26 March, 2022 In 2020, surveillance of Campylobacter infections confirmed the epidemiological and biological trends already observed in recent years:
a predominance of the species C. jejuni ;
higher number of cases and incidence in children;
a predominance of infections in men, except in people aged 30 to 39;
a seasonal peak during the summer period;
high resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, which has remained stable in recent years;
no notable increase in the resistance rates of the six antibiotics tested routinely;
the consumption of poultry as the first food (incriminated or suspected) source of contamination in episodes of collective food poisoning. Read More

Nebraska: 570,000 broiler chickens to be destroyed due to HPAI

23 March, 2022 Nebraska has confirmed its first case of avian influenza in a commercial flock of chickens (Lincoln Premium Poultry).
The state Department of Agriculture said the highly contagious disease has been found in a flock of 570,000 broiler chickens in Butler County.
The flock is on a farm that raises chickens sent for processing at the company's Costco-affiliated operation in Fremont. Read More

HPAI confirmed in a Romanian poultry farm

20 March, 2022 On March 18, 2022, the Romania’s Institute for Diagnosis and Animal Health confirmed an HPAI outbreak, sub-type H5N1, in a 33,900 commercial laying hens located in Branistea/Oinacu village, Giurgiu county (southern Romania). All birds will be culled. This marks the first outbreak in nearly one year, as the most recent HPAI outbreak was confirmed in May 2021, in a 180,000-bird commercial poultry farm. Read More

HPAI at a chicken layer farm - Buena Vista County Iowa

19 March, 2022 The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed a second positive case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Buena Vista County, Iowa. The virus was found in a flock of commercial layer chickens with 5.3 million chickens. This is the second confirmed case of HPAI in Buena Vista County, Iowa. The first case was in a commercial turkey flock on March 6. Read More

Salmonella and E. coli in frozen RTC chicken and turkey products in England tested in 2020

Int J Food Microbiol 369 (2022) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2022.109609 18 March, 2022 Comminuted, reformulated, frozen chicken products including food such as chicken nuggets have been implicated in causing human salmonellosis. A multi-country Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreak involving several strains with >400 reported human cases in the UK occurred in 2020. Initially S. Infantis was detected in one sample from a case home but S. Enteritidis was then also isolated using a S. Enteritidis specific PCR in combination with isolation via a Craigie-tube. This prompted a survey to examine the presence and levels of Salmonella and E. coli in ready-to-cook FR poultry products in England in 2020. Read More

First case of HPAI detected on Kent County, Delaware farm

18 March, 2022 Federal laboratory testing has confirmed a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI) case in a commercial broiler farm in Kent County, Delaware. Following an investigation by the Delaware Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratory confirmed poultry from this farm tested positive for highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI). Read More

HPAI in a backyard Flock in New Hampshire

18 March, 2022 Highly pathogenic avian influenza has been found in a backyard flock in New Hampshire.
The flock is in Rockingham County. Read More

USDA confirms HPAI in a backyard flock in Nebraska

16 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a non-commercial backyard flock (non-poultry) in Merrick County, Nebraska. Read More

HPAI in a second layer farm in Cecil county

16 March, 2022 A second layer farm in Cecil County, Maryland, owned by the same company and about 0.35 miles from 1st Cecil County farm has been found HPAI positive. Read More

HPAI in a commercial chicken operation in Wisconsin

14 March, 2022 State animal health officials have quarantined the property in southern Wisconsin's Jefferson County, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) west of Milwaukee. 2,760,000 chickens will be destroyed. Read More

HPAI confirmed in S. Dakota turkey flock

13 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial turkey flock in Charles Mix County, South Dakota.
36,000 will be culled. Read More

Iowa: HPAI in Taylor County

12 March, 2022 The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed a positive case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Taylor County, Iowa. The virus was found in a flock of commercial layer chickens. Read More

Canada restricts imports from AI-affected US states

12 March, 2022 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) issued a press release announcing new restrictions against the movement of poultry products from avian influenza-impacted US states.
All raw poultry and all poultry products and by-products that are not fully cooked, including eggs and raw pet foods, sourced, processed, or packaged from the restricted zones in the states below are under restriction until further notice. Read More

HPAI in Kansas and Illinois

12 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a backyard mixed species poultry flock in Franklin County, Kansas and a non-commercial backyard flock (non-poultry) in Mclean County, Illinois. Read More

France to cull millions more poultry as HPAI hits west

12 March, 2022 France is to slaughter several million poultry birds in the second mass cull of flocks this winter as the country tries to contain outbreaks of avian influenza.
After a wave of cases in the southwest led to the culling of around 4 million birds, the disease has spread rapidly since last month in the Pays de la Loire region, another major poultry zone further up France's west coast. The authorities had slaughtered 1.2 million birds so far in the region and expect to cull another 3 million. By wiping out the populations where the virus is spreading, officials hope to shorten the outbreak and prevent it from reaching other poultry-raising regions. Read More

HPAI reported in turkey flock in Missouri

10 March, 2022 The Missouri Department of Agriculture confirmed another outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on a poultry farm in Lawrence County. 37,770 commercial Turkey breeder replacement hens will be culled. Read More

Two additional cases of HPAI confirmed on Delaware and Maryland farms

9 March, 2022 Federal laboratory testing has confirmed two cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI)—one pullet operation in New Castle County, Delaware, and one broiler flock in Queen Anne’s County, Maryland. Read More

HPAI in Missouri

9 March, 2022 Missouri reports two more outbreaks of avian influenza:
A backyard flock housing 51 birds in Bates County and a commercial turkey flock in Jasper with 27,000 birds. Read More

Second Iowa avian influenza outbreak

8 March, 2022 Avian influenza has been detected in a second flock in Iowa. This time it is a commercial turkey flock - 50,000 birds. Read More

HPAI confirmed in Maryland chicken flock

6 March, 2022 Federal laboratory testing has confirmed a case of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI) on a Maryland poultry farm. A flock of commercial layer chickens in Cecil County, Maryland. Read More

Avian Influenza in a chicken flock in southeast Missouri

5 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a flock of commercial broiler chickens (294,700) in Stoddard County, Missouri. Read More

HPAI in a backyard flock in western Iowa

4 March, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture said it confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza in the flock of fewer than 50 birds in Pottawattamie County. Read More

Avian influenza found at 6th Indiana turkey farm

2 March, 2022 H5 HPAI has been confirmed in the fourth Turkey farm in Dubois County (0.6 miles south of the 3rd farm. Laboratory testing of a commercial flock of turkeys in Dubois County has identified H5 avian influenza virus. This is considered a presumptive-positive case, and samples are being verified at the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Iowa.
This is the sixth farm (known as Dubois4) in Indiana to be diagnosed with avian influenza Read More

USA: two more cases of HPAI

1 March, 2022 Laboratory-confirmed cases of avian influenza have been identified in Dutchess (Backyard Mixed Species, non-poultry) and Ulster County (Captive Wild Birds, non-poultry). Read More

USA: Second case of HPAI detected in backyard birds in Knox County

24 February, 2022 USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed the presence of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a sample taken from a second small flock of non-commercial backyard birds (non-poultry) in Knox County. This property is located approximately 3-km from the initial property where HPAI was previously detected. Read More

Avian influenza: the situation in France

24 February, 2022 Since the beginning of August, many outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been detected in wildlife or in farms in Europe, particularly along the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. In recent months, the health authorities of many Member States (the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, etc.) have notified outbreaks in poultry farms (turkeys and broiler chickens, laying hens). Twenty-nine countries are now affected across the whole of the European continent, which has recorded nearly 400 outbreaks in livestock and 700 cases in wildlife.
France: A first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza was detected on 26 November in a commercial laying hen farm in the commune of Warhem, in the Nord department . This is the first case on farms since last winter's epizootic which lasted until spring 2021. Several other farms have since been affected and new cases have been detected in wildlife. Read More

USA: HPAI detected in Michigan backyard flock

24 February, 2022 Following an investigation by the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD), the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) has confirmed the discovery of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a non-commercial backyard flock in Kalamazoo County. Read More

Avian influenza in Delaware

23 February, 2022 Avian influenza found in Delaware chicken flock (commercial egg type layers).
Testing has confirmed a case of avian influenza on a Delaware poultry farm that showed increased mortality over the past few days. Following an investigation by the Delaware Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratory has confirmed poultry from this farm have tested positive for highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI).
The farm is under quarantine to stop the spread of avian influenza to other flocks in the state. The birds on the affected farm (Egg-production complex), 1.2M - will be depopulated. Read More

Testicular atrophy in broiler breeders

Gallardo et al (2022) Av Dis - https://doi.org/10.1637/21-00108 23 February, 2022 Infectious bronchitis is a respiratory disease of chickens caused by a gammacoronavirus named infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus of chickens, is one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. The name of the disease refers to its most frequent clinical manifestation, although it can infect many other epithelial cells, including the kidney, genital organs and many parts of the alimentary tract. A case report published in Av Dis (Jan 2022) report a case of decreased reproductive efficiency due to male infertility in 33- to 38-wk-old broiler breeders. At necropsy, the males presented with urates deposited on the skin around the vent and testicular asymmetry due to marked unilateral atrophy. In addition to the testicular lesions and IBV presence in testes, serum testosterone levels in roosters from the affected flocks were significantly low. Read More

Two new cases of HPAI in Indiana

23 February, 2022 On Feb. 18, laboratory testing identified H5 avian influenza in a commercial turkey flock in Greene County (known as Greene2). A total of 15,400 turkeys were depopulated.
On Feb. 23 Laboratory testing of a commercial flock of turkeys in Dubois County has identified H5 avian influenza virus. This is considered a presumptive-positive case, and samples are being verified at the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Iowa. Read More

HPAI in New York

20 February, 2022 A highly pathogenic avian influenza has been detected in a non-commercial backyard flock of birds on Long Island in New York.
Samples from the flock were tested at the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center, part of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network, and confirmed at the APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. Read More

HPAI in a non-commercial backyard flock in Maine

20 February, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a non-commercial backyard flock (non-poultry) in Knox County, Maine. Read More

Indiana: Greene County flock infected with avian influenza

18 February, 2022 Indiana's Board of Animal Health is reporting a 3rd turkey farm affected by HPAI H5 (presumably H5N1), this time in Greene County, which lies roughly 40 miles north of Dubois County.
A high death rate of turkeys in Greene County led to the laboratory testing of the flock. Read More

New case of HPAI in Indiana

16 February, 2022 Indiana, Dubois County is reporting another case of Avian Influenza on a commercial turkey farm that houses more than 26,500 birds.
Laboratory testing of a commercial flock of young turkeys in Dubois County has identified the H5N1 avian influenza virus. Read More

HPAI in a turkey flock in Kentucky

15 February, 2022 Kentucky officials confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in samples taken from the premise in Webster County, Kentucky. 53,300 birds will be culled. Read More

Another HPAI case confirmed in Nova Scotia

15 February, 2022 On February 11, 2022, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI), subtype H5N1, at a mixed farm in western Nova Scotia, which includes poultry and products for local sale. Read More

USDA: HPAI in a flock of broilers in Kentucky & backyard poultry in Virginia

15 February, 2022 USDA Confirms Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in a flock of commercial broiler chickens in Kentucky and backyard mixed species flock in Virginia.
The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds in two states – a flock of commercial broiler chickens (240,000) in Fulton County, Kentucky, and a backyard flock of mixed species birds in Fauquier County, Virginia. Read More

More HPAI cases in Spain

12 February, 2022 Spanish authorities have slaughtered more than 130,000 hens after an outbreak of avian influenza was detected at an intensive farming operation in the northern region of Castile and Leon (Íscar).
At the end of January, poultry at a farm in Andalusia, Spain’s southernmost autonomous region tested positive for the H5N1 HPAI virus. 41,000 birds were culled. Read More

USA: HPAI in an Indiana turkey flock

10 February, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in an Indiana turkey flock. The H5N1 is of the Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong H5 clade 2.3.4.4b.
Samples from the affected flock, which experienced increased mortality, were tested at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University, part of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network, and confirmed at the APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, IA. Read More

Multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis infections linked to eggs

EFSA 8 February, 2022 On 2 September 2021, France reported a cluster of 46 cases with Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 infections since June2021 in the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s (ECDC’s) EpiPulse system (event ID 2021-FWD-00065). By 11 January 2022, 272 confirmed cases had been reported in five European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries and the United Kingdom (UK): Denmark (n=3), France (n=216), the Netherlands (n=12), Norway (n=7), Spain (n=22), and the UK (n=12) in 2021. Two deaths were recorded in adult men. Twenty-five cases were hospitalised. Sixty cases reported consumption of eggs/egg products.
Some cases reported in France in 2021 had visited restaurants serving eggs distributed by a common supplier, Spanish Packing Centre A. The eggs originated from three Spanish farms, one testing positive for the outbreak strain. Fresh table eggs from the farms linked to the outbreak were withdrawn and redirected for use in heat-treated egg products. No other countries receive Read More

H5N1 in Maryland wild bird

8 February, 2022 Maryland is the fifth state to report the virus, following South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Florida.
The detection marks the 91st recent identification of H5N1 or H5 on the US East Coast. Read More

Canada: HPAI at a turkey farm

5 February, 2022 On January 30th, 2022, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) was notified of high mortality in a commercial turkey farm in Western Nova Scotia. The CFIA National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease has confirmed that the virus was H5N1, similar to the viruses reported in non-poultry and wild birds recently in the provinces of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The virus has HA cleavage site motif “PLREKRRK/GLF” consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza strains of H5 subtype.The HA gene segment is A/goose/Guangdong/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage belonging to 2.3.4.4B clade. Phylogenic analysis indicates this virus corresponds to the Eurasian lineage circulating in 2021 in Europe. Read More

Recall of chicken product due to 'presence of salmonella'

5 February, 2022 A batch of Roosters Gluten Free Breaded Chicken Fillet Goujons is being recalled due to the presence of Salmonella.
Point-of-sale recall notices will be displayed in Aldi stores supplied with the implicated batch. Read More

Canada: another H5N1 case

1 February, 2022 HPAI H5N1 has been detected in Grand Desert, Nova Scotia in a Canada Goose.Since the confirmation of the case, a hobby farm located in Porters Lake has lost nearly their entire flock - 59 of 60 birds. Read More

Salmonellosis in Australia 2020

Communicable Diseases Intelligence - https://doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2022.46.2 31 January, 2022 More than seventy per cent of salmonellosis in Australia is thought to be due to contaminated food.
Rates of salmonellosis vary across the Australian states and territories, with the highest rates in the Northern Territory.
In 2020, to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Australia implemented public health measures including border closures, physical distancing and hygiene advice. A new study analyses salmonellosis notification rates in 2020 and considers possible impacts of COVID-19 measures. Read More

Moldova: first report of HPAI

28 January, 2022 Moldova registers first detection of H5N1 HPAI in poultry. For Moldova, the outbreak was the country’s first ever recorded. Read More

Spain: HPAI at a turkey farm

18 January, 2022 Spain has reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus on a farm north of Madrid.
The outbreak started on Jan. 13 on a farm of 18,900 birds, 10 weeks of age, in the village of Cantalejo. Read More

USDA confirms additional HPAI finds in wild birds

18 January, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed two additional findings of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in wild birds – one in Colleton County, South Carolina and one in Hyde County, North Carolina. Read More

The economic value of the H7N9 vaccination program in poultry in Guangxi - China

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 200 (2022) 105580 17 January, 2022 Influenza A (H7N9) virus was first isolated from humans in March 2013 in China. It has also been detected in poultry in China in the same month and since then has spread across the country. China launched a series of policies to control the disease since April 2013, including:
(1) a disease surveillance programme in poultry; (2) closing live bird markets (LBMs) and controlling the movement of live poultry when infection in people or poultry were reported; (3) improving biosecurity of LBMs; and (4) the promotion of poultry meat trade to consumers over live bird value chains. Despite these interventions, there was only partial compliance with these measures. Highly pathogenic strains of H7N9 virus have been detected in humans and poultry since January 2017, posing an increased threat of infection.
China launched a H7N9 vaccination program in poultry, starting from the Guangxi and Guangdong provinces inJuly 2017, followed by other provinces in September 2017, as a response to a steep in Read More

China: Salmonella outbreak linked to eggs

Front. Microbiol., 22 November 2021 16 January, 2022 A Salmonella outbreak linked to egg fried rice in China affected more than 220 people this past year. The outbreak occurred in Beijing in March 2021 with 225 of 324 diners who ate at a canteen showing gastrointestinal symptoms. Epidemiological investigations and lab tests confirmed the outbreak was related to undercooked egg fried rice. Salmonella enteritidis was recovered from eggs. So the contaminated egg fried rice may be related to raw eggs carrying S. enteritidis. Read More

European AI viruses to cross the Atlantic to North America

bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.13.476155 16 January, 2022 On December 20, 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) confirmed the presence of HPAI subtype H5N1 at a multi-species exhibition farm in the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe and Africa, but are currently absent from Oceania and the Americas. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were most closely related to HPAI GsGd viruses circulating in northwestern Europe in spring 2021. Read More

USA: HPAI in a wild duck

15 January, 2022 A wild duck harvested by a hunter is infected with the Eurasian H5 type of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).
The American wigeon bird was tested by the Clemson University Veterinary Diagnostic Center in Columbia. Read More

2nd HPAI case in Newfoundland, Canada

13 January, 2022 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency says avian influenza has killed chickens at a small backyard farm (17 birds) on the Avalon Peninsula. Read More

The Norwegian Zoonoses Report 2020

10 January, 2022 Salmonellosis: The number of reported cases of salmonellosis in humans (440) decreased in 2020 compared to the previous four years. The surveillance programme for Salmonella includes testing of live animals (pigs, poultry and cattle) and fresh meat (pigs and cattle). From altogether 8,882 faecal samples in 1,342 poultry holdings one broiler flock was positive for Salmonella, giving an estimated Salmonella prevalence of 0.02% in poultry flocks for slaughter. The number of salmonellosis cases in humans has decreased over the past 10 years. The number of cases infected in Norway has remained relatively stable with an incidence of 3.6 to 6.1 in the last 5 years (2015- 2019) but decreased to 3.2 in 2020, probably due to measurements against COVID-19 in Norway. The reduced prevalence of Salmonella in European poultry is presumed to contribute to the observed reduction. Read More

First report of avian infuenza in Spain

8 January, 2022 The HPAI H5N1 strain has now hit Spain. The influenza virus was detected in four swans and a stork that were found dead in the Segre river in Lleida, Catalonia.
For now, the National Avian Influenza Surveillance Programme in Spain has decreed that the outbreak should not lead to commercial restrictions on the movement of live birds or their products. Read More

A case of avian influenza in a person in the South West of England

6 January, 2022 This is clearly going to be big news but the key thing is that human infections with H5N1 are really rare (fewer than 1000 worldwide since 2003) and they almost always occur as a result of direct, long term contact with poultry. The case was detected by officials swabbing people who had close contact with infected flocks. Laboratory analysis revealed the virus was the 'H5N1' type found in birds. The person (79-year-old Alan Gosling, a retired engineer) acquired the infection from very close, regular contact with a large number of infected birds (ducks), which they kept in and around their home over a prolonged period of time. Read More

Second case of avian influenza in Canada

3 January, 2022 Environment Canada says a highly pathogenic avian influenza first identified on a farm on the Avalon Peninsula has been found in birds around the St. John's area.
Environment Canada had confirmed the H5N1 virus, has been found in wild birds in areas like Bowring Park, Quidi Vidi Lake and other areas frequented by flocks of birds.
Cases of H5N1 were first identified on the island around mid-December on an exhibition farm on the island. Read More