Infectious Diseases 2022

Infectious Diseases 2022

Ecuador: H5 HPAI

30 November, 2022 The Ecuador Veterinary Services has confirmed the presence of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial layer farm (180,000 birds), where an unusual mortality (28%) was detected. Read More

UK APHA: Technical risk assessment for avian influenza (human health)

30 November, 2022 UK virus population: There is an increase in confirmed cases of influenza A infected birds. In 2022, there has been year-round maintenance in indigenous wild birds, which represents a change compared to the usual seasonal pattern in which infections die out over the summer.
Influenza A H5N1 is the predominant influenza virus subtype detected in wild birds and farmed flocks in the UK. There is diversity within the UK population of H5N1 viruses with 10 genotypes detected since October 2021, including some reassortment with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). The dominant circulating genotypes are currently AIV09 and AIV07-B2. The other currently detected genotype in poultry is AIV48, which includes genes from gull-associated influenza viruses. Read More

Peru: More than 13,000 wild seabirds killed by avian influenza

30 November, 2022 The latest official report carried out at the national level by the National Forestry and Wildlife Service (SERFOR) shows more than 13,869 wild seabirds killed by H5N1 avian influenza, in a large part of our coastline, inside and outside of protected areas. Read More

Multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Mbandaka

30 November, 2022 As of 8 November 2022, A cross-border outbreak of Salmonella Mbandaka ST413 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA, Israel, and the UK since September 2021. By 8 November 2022.
196 cases have been reported in Czechia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Israel possibly linked to consumption of chicken meat. Nineteen cases have been hospitalised and five cases have had septicaemia; there has been one fatal case in the UK. Cases have occurred across all age groups and there is no overall difference when gender is taken into account.
Based on case interviews from Finland and the UK, ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken products and/or fresh chicken meat, such as those used in sandwiches and wraps, are the likely vehicles of infection. Read More

Israel: H5N1 in a turkey flock

22 November, 2022 The Israeli Veterinary Services reported the first incident this winter of H5N1 avian influenza in a commercial turkey farm.
The event was diagnosed in a flock of turkeys in Kibbutz Shluhot. The flock is 19 weeks old and the diagnosis was made during the flock's last slaughter day at the 'Off Tov' poultry slaughterhouse.
Read More

South Korea: updating the HPAI antigen at the National Antigen Bank

Vaccines. 2022 Nov 3;10(11):1860 17 November, 2022 Since 2018, Korea has been building an avian influenza national antigen bank for emergency preparedness; this antigen bank is updated every 2 years. The ideal avian influenza vaccine provides the best protection against viruses that are antigenically close to field viruses. Therefore, vaccines stocks need to be updated continuously to prevent infections by novel HPAI viruses. To update the vaccine strains in the antigen bank, a reverse genetics technology was used to develop two vaccine candidates against avian influenza strains belonging to clades 2.3.2.1d and 2.3.4.4h, and then their immunogenicity and protective efficacy were evaluated in SPF chickens challenged with H5 viruses. Clade 2.3.2.1d or 2.3.4.4h viruses have not been detected in Korea; however, outbreaks have continued to occur in neighboring countries, meaning that there is the potential for introduction into Korea at any time. Read More

H7N9 in men is associated with testosterone level

Nature communications | 2022 13:6936 15 November, 2022 In early 2013, human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were first reported in China. Since then, H7N9 caused five epidemic waves from 2013 to 2017, making it one of the major zoonoses in the current decade. Exposure to live poultry markets is considered a major risk factor for human infections with the H7N9 virus. An initial epidemiological study revealed that 71% of all H7N9 cases were males in the first wave. A high degree of infection in men was consistently observed, with similar proportions (68–71%) throughout the entire five H7N9 epidemic waves. Currently, very little is known regarding the complex interplay of biological sex and gender-specific behaviour as contributors to influenza disease outcomes. Read More

Peru: HPAI H5 in pelicans

15 November, 2022 As a result of the passive surveillance actions that are deployed throughout the country, the National Agricultural Health Service of Peru (Senasa) confirms HPAI H5N1 in free-living pelicans found on the beach “Los Cangrejos” in Paita, Department of Piura, northwest Peru. Read More

Mexico: Strategic H5N1 vaccination to protect poultry production

14 November, 2022 In the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1, the Senasica instructed the strategic vaccination of long-lived birds in areas of high zoosanitary risk, with the purpose of protecting national poultry production and guaranteeing the supply of chicken meat and eggs.
The vaccination will be carried out in accordance with a strategic plan designed by the technicians of the General Directorate of Animal Health (DGSA) of the Senasica, in coordination with the National Union of Poultry Farmers (UNA), which provides in the first instance to protect the parent birds and breeders, since they are the origin of the productive chain. Read More

Spain: two human cases of H5N1

5 November, 2022 A month ago we report a single (mild) human infection with avian H5N1 in a farm worker from Guadalajara, Spain. But now following a WHO report it seems there were two individuals infected, not one. WHO: "Public health authorities in Spain reported the detection of influenza A(H5N1) in two poultry workers on a single farm, following an outbreak in poultry confirmed on 20 September." Read More

Salmonellosis in the EU 2020

DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6971 5 November, 2022 Salmonellosis was the second most commonly reported foodborne gastrointestinal infection in humans after campylobacteriosis and was an important cause of foodborne outbreaks in EU MS and non-MS countries.
In 2020, Salmonella reporting recorded the lowest number of human cases since 2007, when salmonellosis surveillance started, owing to the impacts of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU on the one hand and the COVID-19 pandemic on the other hand.
In 2020, the number of confirmed cases of human salmonellosis was 52,702, corresponding to an EU notification rate of 13.7 per 100,000 population. This was a decrease of 29.7% and 32.8% compared with the rate in 2019 (19.5 and 20.4 per 100,000 population) with and without the 2019 data from the United Kingdom, respectively. Read More

Campylobacteriosis in the EU

DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6971 5 November, 2022 Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported foodborne gastrointestinal infection in humans in the EU and has been so since 2005.
In 2020, Campylobacter reporting recorded the lowest number of human cases since campylobacteriosis surveillance began in 2007, owing to the impacts of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU and the COVID-19 pandemic.
In 2020, the number of confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis totalled 120,946, corresponding to an EU notification rate of 40.3 per 100,000 population. This is a decrease of 33.4% and 25.4% compared with the rate in 2019 (60.6 and 54.0 per 100,000 population)with and without the 2019 data from the United Kingdom, respectively. Read More

Mexico: a new outbreak of HPAI H5 at a commercial poultry farm

31 October, 2022 An outbreak of HPAI H5 at a large commercial poultry farm in Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon affecting 60,000 birds.
Mexico's first case of the virus was detected in a wild bird in the Metepec district to the west of the capital Mexico City. Another H5N1 case was found in a wild bird in Tijuana in Baja California state and in a small chicken, family-run farm in Chiapas in the country's south. Read More

Two outbreaks of avian influenza detected in Colombia

25 October, 2022 The World Organization for Animal Health (WHO) has notified the detection of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 serotype at the beginning of October in the Colombian town of Capitancito, in the Darien area, near the border with Panama. Read More

Spain: Avian influenza H5N1 in a mink farm

21 October, 2022 On 18 October 2022, the regional health authorities of Galicia in Spain reported an outbreak of avian influenza A(H5N1) in a mink farm in the province of A Coruña. Mink in the farm were tested following regular surveillance procedures after the occurrence of sick mink in the farm with respiratory symptoms and an unusual increase in deaths of the animals. Mink were tested for several diseases, including SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. Two samples tested positive for avian influenza A(H5N1). Avian influenza A(H5N1) has recently been detected in Spain in domestic and wild birds. Strict measures were immediately implemented on the farm by the official veterinary services. Following a public health risk assessment by Spanish authorities, mink were culled in the farm that kept 8,369 breeding females and 43,617 weaned offspring, and the farm premises were cleaned and disinfected. Read More

HPAIV transfer from Europe to North America by bird migration through Iceland

Günther at al (2022) Emerg Infect Dis 20 October, 2022 Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of hemagglutinin type H5 and clade 2.3.4.4b have widely spread within the northern hemisphere since 2020 and threaten wild bird populations, as well as poultry production. A new study presents phylogeographic evidence that Iceland has been used as a stepping stone for HPAIV translocation from northern Europe to North America by infected but mobile wild birds. At least 2 independent incursions of HPAIV H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b assigned to 2 hemagglutinin clusters, B1 and B2, are documented for summer‒autumn 2021 and spring 2022. Read More

Mexico detects first case of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

16 October, 2022 The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Mexico confirmed a case of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, a strain of the virus that has caused serious outbreaks in Europe, the United States, and Canada. This is the first case registered in the country and was detected in a dead falcon that fed on wild birds in the Lerma River basin, in the central State of Mexico. Read More

USDA proposed regulatory framework to reduce salmonella risks in poultry products

15 October, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) released a proposed regulatory framework for a new strategy to control Salmonella contamination in poultry products and reduce foodborne illnesses attributed to these products. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that Salmonella bacteria cause approximately 1.35 million human infections and 26,500 hospitalizations in the United States every year. Of those infections, over 23% are attributed to poultry consumption. Data from USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) shows the total cost for foodborne Salmonella infections in the United States is a staggering $4.1 billion annually and the cost for the loss of productivity to the economy is $88 million. These are real costs to real people that can and should be prevented. Read More

NVWA urges Salmonella focus in poultry regardless of avian influenza downside

Source: Food Safety News 14 October, 2022 Dutch authorities have harassed the necessity to maintain a concentration on Salmonella regardless of restrictions due to avian influenza. The Netherlands Meals and Client Product Security Authority (NVWA) stated applications to guard the well-being of animals and other people should proceed and requested poultry firms to cooperate with official sampling for Salmonella. As a part of this program, necessary sampling is frequently carried out at poultry farms. It helps to stop merchandise contaminated with Salmonella from getting into the meals chain.
Dutch officers have requested the European Courtroom of Justice to make clear the foundations around Salmonella retests at poultry firms. The Commerce and Trade Appeals Tribunal is dealing with a case involving potential findings of Salmonella enteritidis at a poultry farm in 2020. Read More

Newcastle disease in Norway

8 October, 2022 In September, an outbreak of Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) was reported in commercial poultry at premises in Klepp in Norway. The premises had 7,500 laying hens present, and disease was detected following a decrease in egg production with low mortality. This is the first outbreak of ND reported in domestic poultry in Norway since 2003 when a premise with 112 mixed poultry in Hole municipality was confirmed. Read More

The annual cost of foodborne illness in Australia

7 October, 2022 Foodborne illness causes a significant health burden in Australia. Estimates of both the extent of foodborne illness and the costs arising from illness are essential for measuring the impact on the population. In 2010 it was estimated that Australians experience almost 16 million episodes of gastroenteritis each year, with about one-quarter of these due to contaminated food. This report updates these numbers to circa 2019 and estimates the associated costs to individuals and the health system. As foodborne disease interventions are often targeted at specific causes of illness, costs are also provided for ten high-priority pathogens. Figures show the scale of the problem is $2.44 billion (U.S. $1.58 billion) each year.
The largest component of this cost is lost productivity due to non-fatal illness, followed by premature mortality and direct costs (including hospitalisations and other health care use). Read More

Resistant Campylobacter common in UK chicken

FSA 4 October, 2022 Campylobacter spp. are the most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the UK, with chicken considered to be the most important vehicle of transmission for this organism. It is estimated there are 500,000 cases of campylobacteriosis in the UK annually, with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) accounting for approximately 91% and 8 % of infections, respectively.
A new report from the United Kingdom's Food Safety Agency (FSA) finds that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter bacteria isolated from retail chicken meat and chicken at slaughter is common but appears to have plateaued since 2014.
The analysis of AMR trends in Campylobacter, found that resistance to quinolones (ciprofloxacin), nalidixic acid, and tetracycline is common in C. jejuni and C. coli in UK broiler chickens. Read More

The Netherlands: Trial with three vaccines against HPAI

4 October, 2022 Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) has started a trial with avian influenza vaccination.
Vaccines against avian flu of three different pharmaceutical companies are tested. In the trial vaccines against the current H5 viruses are tested in laying hens. More information about the potential vaccines against avian influenza is required before these can be applied in the field. The research is done under commission of the Dutch ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality.
This first vaccine trial is performed in the animal facilities in the high containment unit of WBVR. The vaccines were developed by three different pharmaceutical companies; the tested vaccines are based on different technologies. Read More

2021-2022 the largest avian influenza epidemic in Europe ever

ECDC 3 October, 2022 The 2021–2022 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic season is the largest observed in Europe so far. The latest data from the joint EFSA, ECDC and EU reference laboratory report show a total of 2,467 outbreaks in poultry, 48 million birds culled in the affected establishments, 187 detections in captive birds, and 3,573 HPAI events in wild birds. Additionally, the geographical extent of the outbreak is unprecedented, ranging from Svalbard islands to South Portugal and eastern to Ukraine, affecting 37 European countries. Read More

Spain: H5N1 detected in a worker at a poultry farm

3 October, 2022 The Center for the Coordination of Health Alerts and Emergencies (CCAES ) of the Ministry of Health has notified in a report, about the detection of avian influenza A (H5N1) in a sample of a poultry farm worker in Guadalajara.
On September 27, 2022, the National Center for Microbiology confirmed the detection in a sample that was taken on the 23rd in the context of control and early detection actions around an H5N1 focus. Read More

ECDC Guidance: testing and identification of zoonotic influenza

ECDC 3 October, 2022 Given the ongoing widespread circulation, evolution and reassortment of influenza viruses in mainly pig and avian populations in Europe and globally, and the threat of increasing transmissibility to mammals including humans, this document aims to provide guidance for public health and laboratory experts. Read More

H3N8 AI virus: A novel H9N2-original reassortment virus

Journal of Infection 2022 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2022.08.033 24 September, 2022 H3N8 is the most prevalent subtype of equine influenza (EIV) virus, which is a serious and highly infectious disease in horses. It was also been found that it can infect dogs, cats, and harbor seals. Moreover, many recent studies have suggested that H3N8 could be transmitted between mammals and pose a threat to humans. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene was clustered into the H3 Eurasian linage and grouped with the wild birds-origin virus, whereas its neuraminidase (NA) gene belongs to the N8 North American linage and is derived from the wild bird AIVs as well. The phylogenetic analyses of internal genes demonstrated that all the internal genes of human H3N8 isolate derived from the H9N2 avian influenza virus from the poultry of China. Read More

Avian influenza detected in American dolphin

8 September, 2022 A bottlenose dolphin found dead in Florida’s Dixie County was infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, making it the first cetacean to be found with the virus in America and only the second known case in the world.
The young male dolphin was recovered in March at Horseshoe Beach by the University of Florida’s marine animal rescue team. A collaboration between UF College of Veterinary Medicine researchers and state and federal laboratories identified the unexpected infection with HPAIV. Read More

H5N1 infection in a black bear

31 August, 2022 Healthy Wildlife - the blog of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative - published the following report:
An adult female black bear exhibiting unusual behaviour was reported by visitors in June at Forillon National Park in the Gaspésie region, Quebec. This bear was exhibiting strange behaviour early in the day on June 14. It wandered between vehicles, went down to the water in a fishing harbour, began to swim around in circles, came out and hit a wall. Later that day, Parks Canada staff found the animal lying on its side in a ditch breathing shallowly and unresponsive to sound stimuli. Convulsions and spasms were also observed. Due to its condition, the animal was anesthetized by Parks Canada employees and then euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Various organs sampled by park employees were sent to the RCSF-Quebec for analysis. Read More

Sweden: First case of avian influenza confirmed in porpoises

Source: Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt 31 August, 2022 The Norwegian Veterinary Institute (SVA) has confirmed the first finding of avian influenza virus in a porpoise. The analysis shows that the porpoise died as a result of the same virus that was behind this summer's extensive avian influenza outbreak among wild birds. The young male porpoise stranded alive in Kämpersvik, in Tanum municipality, Västra Götaland 28 June 2022 (Sweden). Despite repeated attempts by private individuals to get it to swim out to deeper water again, it was too exhausted, got tangled in seaweed and died later in the evening. The porpoise was transported to SVA for an autopsy. Read More

IABS: workshop on barriers to usage of vaccination for prevention and control of HPAI

30 August, 2022 High pathogenicity avian influenza outbreaks around the world are currently causing extensive problems in poultry production and wild birds. Recent outbreaks are among the largest ever experienced in Europe and in North America. More than 157 million birds have died or been destroyed because of these outbreaks, an unacceptably high loss, leading producers, and veterinary authorities in affected countries to explore alternative methods of prevention, in particular, vaccination. In addition, the latest strain has caused extensive problems in poultry and wild birds across the northern hemisphere including Central Asia, Middle East and West Africa.
The International Alliance for Biological Standards (IABS) will host a workshop on barriers to usage of vaccination for prevention and control of HPAI in Paris, France, October 25-26. Read More

Simultaneous introductions of HPAI viruses into Canada across two intercontinental flyways

Alkie et al. (2022) Virus Evolution 26 August, 2022 HPAI viruses were isolated from wild waterfowl from two Atlantic coastal states, coinciding with the movement of banded birds within the Atlantic flyway. Wild bird migration that occurred via the Arctic may have carried these viruses from Europe across the Atlantic to Canada.
In Japan, particularly in the Hokkaido region, in January 2022 the presence of an H5N1 HPAI virus was identified in a White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). In February 2022, Canada reported H5N1 viruses from a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and in April 2022 from a commercial chicken flock, both in British Columbia.
A new study, demonstrates the presence of two ancestrally and genetically different GsGd lineage H5N1 HPAI clade 2.3.4.4b viruses isolated from domestic chickens and Bald Eagle in British Columbia in 2022. Read More

A temperature-sensitive recombinant IB vaccine

Journal of Virology (2022) 26 August, 2022 According to a recent research publication, Pirbright researchers have a candidate vaccine that could protect chickens from severe disease with a single dose. A recombinant IBV (rIBV) known as M41-R, based on a pathogenic strain M41-CK was attenuated in vivo by two amino acid changes, Nsp10-Pro85Leu and Nsp14-Val393Leu.
Attenuation of IBV was caused by changes located in non-structural proteins, and that two specific amino acids were responsible for this. The research showed that these amino acid changes resulted in the virus being less able to cause disease in poultry.
The researchers then investigated how changes in these amino acids weakened the virus. Read More

Sources and trends of human salmonellosis in Europe, 2015–2019

International Journal of Food Microbiology 379 (2022) 24 August, 2022 Using European outbreak data for recent years (2015–2019), a new study estimates the relative contributions of different food sources to human salmonellosis and assesses trends in the occurrence and characteristics of human salmonellosis outbreaks over time, by European region, and most common Salmonella serotypes.
Overall, the most important food source of salmonellosis outbreaks was eggs (33 %), followed by pork (7 %), and (general) meat products (6 %). Read More

USA: H5N1 confirmed in Black Vultures

24 August, 2022 Avian influenza H5N1 has killed at least 700 wild black vultures at Noah's Ark Animal Sanctuary in Locust Grove, Georgia.
More than 100 Black Vultures were found dead due to H5N1 HPAI in Harford County, Maryland from April to May 2022. Read More

FDA: Final guidance for shell egg producers who provide laying hens with outside access

19 August, 2022 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued final guidance for shell egg producers on how to comply with certain provisions in the final rule titled, "Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation”.
This guidance provides recommendations on how egg producers who allow hens access to areas outside the poultry house can meet requirements to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating shell eggs on the farm.
A significant change from the draft guidance issued in July 2013 is that FDA is designating a porch as an area outside the poultry house rather than part of the poultry house. FDA made this change, in part, in response to comments submitted to the draft guidance. FDA believes that egg producers can provide laying hens with access to areas outside the poultry house, which includes porches, outdoor runs and pastures and still comply with the egg rule. Read More

Importance of antibacterial proteins in egg white as a function of hen age

Food Microbiology 107 (2022) 16 August, 2022 There are two main mechanisms of egg contamination: vertical transmission during eggshell formation in the oviduct, and horizontal transmission (trans-shell penetration) that occurs following oviposition. Bacteria that pass through the eggshell and associated membranes reach the egg white (albumen), which is an unfavourable medium for bacterial growth and mobility due to its high viscosity, high pH and potent antimicrobial proteins. The antimicrobial activities of protective proteins can act either through direct interaction with the bacterial cell wall (lysozyme, avian beta-defensins) or indirectly by decreasing the bioavailability of growth factors such as iron (ovotransferrin) or biotin (avidin). A new study presents comprehensive in vitro and in ovo analyses of the importance and effectiveness of egg white antimicrobial properties against bacterial contamination. Read More

Australia: salmonella outbreak linked to backyard poultry

Zoonoses Public Health, 2022 12 August, 2022 Between May and August 2020, a multi-jurisdictional outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) infection due to zoonotic transmission was investigated in Australia. In total, 38 outbreak cases of STm with a median age of 5 years were reported. Epidemiological investigation showed contact with live poultry to be a common risk factor with most cases recently purchasing one-week-old chicks from produce/pet stores. A traceback investigation of cases identified 25 product/pet stores of which 18 were linked to a single poultry breeder farm.
On-farm environmental sampling identified the same STm genotype as identified in cases. Whole genome sequencing of both environmental and human outbreak isolates found them to be highly related by phylogenetic analysis. Read More

EFSA/ECDC: Avian influenza overview March-June 2022

EFSA Journal 2022;20(8):7415 12 August, 2022 The 2021-2022 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic season is the largest epidemic so far observed in Europe, with a total of 2,398 outbreaks in poultry, 46 million birds culled in the affected establishments, 168 detections in captive birds, and 2,733 HPAI events in wild birds in 36 European countries. Between 16 March and 10 June 2022, 1,182 HPAI virus detections were reported in 28 EU/EEA countries and United Kingdom in poultry (750), and in wild (410) and captive birds (22). During this reporting period, 86% of the poultry outbreaks were secondary due to between-farm spread of HPAI virus. France accounted for 68% of the overall poultry outbreaks, Hungary for 24% and all other affected countries for less than 2% each. Most detections in wild birds were reported by Germany (158), followed by the Netherlands (98) and the United Kingdom (48). Read More

HPAI in the USA

12 August, 2022 Summary of HPAI cases in commercial and backyard flocks in the USA. Read More

Ireland: salmonella risk in duck eggs

10 August, 2022 The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has issued a warning about the safety of duck eggs following a recall because of Salmonella.
Meadow Park Eggs recalled duck eggs because of the possible presence of Salmonella earlier this month.
Meadow Park Free Range Duck Eggs in a pack size of six with best before dates up to and including Aug. 8 are affected.
Irish officials said there was one potentially related illness but further testing was required before a definitive link could be made. They would not say what type of Salmonella was involved. Read More

NCC objects to FSIS plan to declare Salmonella as adulterant in some chicken products

9 August, 2022 The National Chicken Council released the following statement in response to FSIS announcing its plans to declare Salmonella an adulterant in frozen, raw, breaded, stuffed, chicken products. Attributable to Ashley Peterson, Ph.D., senior vice president of scientific and regulatory affairs.
“As these products often appear ready to eat, but contain raw chicken, we recognize their nature raises special considerations that merit additional attention. The National Chicken Council (NCC) and our member companies have invested millions of dollars and have worked for more than a decade to develop and refine best practices for these products to reduce Salmonella and protect public health. These efforts have been paying off, demonstrated by a significant decline in illness over the past seven years.
“NCC is concerned about the precedent set by this abrupt shift in longstanding policy, made without supporting data, for a product category that has only been associated with one outbreak since 2015 Read More

USDA: Salmonella will be declared as an adulterant in breaded and stuffed raw chicken products

1 August, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing that it will be declaring Salmonella an adulterant in breaded and stuffed raw chicken products.
By declaring Salmonella an adulterant in these products, FSIS will be able to ensure that highly contaminated products that could make people sick are not sold to consumers. Since 1998, breaded and stuffed raw chicken products have been associated with up to 14 outbreaks and approximately 200 illnesses. Products in this category are found in the freezer section and include some chicken cordon bleu or chicken Kiev products. These products appear cooked, but they are heat-treated only to set the batter or breading and the product contains raw poultry. Continual efforts to improve the product labeling have not been effective at reducing consumer illnesses. Read More

Newcastle disease virus in Danish pigeon flocks

23 July, 2022 On 1 June 2022, the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) detected Newcastle disease virus in two pigeon flocks at Næstved.
The one pigeon flock was located in an animal colony in Stenbæksholm with around 1000 birds, primarily pigeons, but also hobby chickens and domestic birds. The second pigeon flock was 100 pigeons and located in Stenstrup. The two pigeon flocks had the same owner. The one pigeon flock was located in an animal colony in Stenbæksholm with around 1000 birds, primarily pigeons, but also hobby chickens and domestic birds. Read More

Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis at a correctional facility

MMWR July 15, 2022 19 July, 2022 On January 14, 2022, the Lincoln-Lancaster County (Nebraska) Health Department (LLCHD) notified the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) of two cases of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella in inmates at a correctional facility. LLCHD initiated an investigation in collaboration with NDHHS to identify the source of the outbreak and develop recommendations. The investigation linked consumption of mechanically separated chicken to illness. Mechanically separated chicken, which is produced at chicken processing facilities by separating edible chicken from bone and cartilage under pressure, is frequently purchased for use in institutions, such as prisons, jails, and correctional facilities because of its affordability.
Staff members at the facility reported approximately 100 inmates experienced gastrointestinal symptoms during a period of a few days; no staff member reported illness. Read More

Transatlantic spread of HPAI by wild birds from Europe to North America in 2021

Scientific Reports | (2022) 12:11729 16 July, 2022 According to a new study, the HPAI H5N1 viruses that were detected in Newfoundland in November and December 2021 originated from Northwest Europe and belonged to HPAI clade 2.3.4.4b. Most likely, these viruses emerged in Northwest Europe in winter 2020/2021, dispersed from Europe in late winter or early spring 2021, and arrived in Newfoundland in autumn 2021. The viruses may have been carried across the Atlantic by migratory birds using different routes, including Icelandic, Greenland/Arctic, or pelagic routes. The unusually high presence of the viruses in European wild bird populations in late winter and spring 2021, as well as the greater involvement of barnacle and greylag geese in the epidemiology of HPAI in Europe since October 2020, may explain why the spread to Newfoundland happened this winter (2021/2022), and not in the previous winters. Read More

Quebec: Seal death in Quebec associated with infections by a HPAI

16 July, 2022 The blog of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative - reported on an unusual mortality event among seals in the St. Lawrence Estuary: "Mortalities of harbour seals in the St. Lawrence Estuary in Quebec associated with infections by a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus." By Carolyn Blushke. The number of harbour seals found dead so far this year represents an increase of about 8 times of the annual average of recent years. Read More

Campylobacter surveillance in France over the past 20 years

16 July, 2022 Campylobacter surveillance in France is carried at the different steps of the food chain, from farms to consumers. It involves many actors including Santé publique France, the National Reference Center for Campylobacter and Helicobacter, the General Directorate for Food (DGAL), the General Directorate for Concurrence, Consumption and Fraud Control (DGCCRF), the National Reference Laboratory for Campylobacter and medical and veterinary labs.
In 2020, the National Reference Center for Campylobacter reported 7,920 isolates as Campylobacter. A total of 63 outbreaks due to Campylobacter were declared with 244 patients in 2020. This was similar to 2019.
Consumption of poultry was the suspected source in 35 outbreaks. While poultry present an important risk, not all infections can be linked to such products. Read More

Seal deaths in Maine linked to avian influenza

6 July, 2022 Since June 1, 2022, Marine Mammals of Maine (MMoME) – a NOAA Fisheries authorized marine mammal stranding network partner – has responded to 40 stranded seals, most of which were found dead. On July 1, USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories concluded that four samples from stranded seals in Maine have tested positive for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). Read More

UK: avian influenza in seabird colonies

2 July, 2022 Avian influenza is spreading at an alarming rate, particularly in seabirds. Thousands of seabirds are dropping dead from avian influenza at some of the UK's most important seabird colonies.
Dead birds are now reported from Bass Rock in Scotland (the world's largest colony of northern gannets), the Farne Islands in northeast England, and the Norfolk coast. Read More

Avian influenza overview March-June 2022

ECDC 1 July, 2022 The 2021–2022 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic season is the largest epidemic so far observed in Europe, with a total of 2,398 outbreaks in poultry, 46 million birds culled in the affected establishments, 168 detections in captive birds, and 2,733 HPAI events in wild birds in 36 European countries. Between 16 March and 10 June 2022, 1,182 HPAI virus detections were reported in 28 EU/EEA countries and United Kingdom in poultry (750), and in wild (410) and captive birds (22). During this reporting period, 86% of the poultry outbreaks were secondary due to between-farm spread of HPAI virus. France accounted for 68% of the overall poultry outbreaks, Hungary for 24% and all other affected countries for less than 2% each. Most detections in wild birds were reported by Germany (158), followed by the Netherlands (98) and the United Kingdom (48). Read More

NARMS: 2019 report

27 June, 2022 Salmonella and Campylobacter are the leading bacterial causes of foodborne illness in the United States, and are the main pathogens tracked by NARMS. Campylobacter and nontyphoidal serotypes of Salmonella enterica (henceforth referred to as Salmonella) can be present in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals including wildlife, livestock, and domestic pets. Salmonella and Campylobacter exposure in humans occurs primarily through the consumption of contaminated foods. In the United States each year, Salmonella is estimated to cause over 1.35 million illnesses, 26,500 hospitalizations, and 420 deaths, while Campylobacter is estimated to cause over 1.5 million illnesses, 19,500 hospitalizations, and 240 deaths. Read More

Gross pathology of HPAI virus H5N1

One Health 14 (2022) 14 June, 2022 High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) clade 2.3.4.4b has re-emerged in the United Kingdom in 2021–2022 winter season.
To control the impact of HPAIV epizootic in poultry, up to 2.4 million birds have been culled in the UK during the current season and the strict indoor housing measures applied have also impacted on the marketing of free-range poultry products. Globally, HPAIV H5N1 has also had a wide geographical dispersion, causing outbreaks in Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa, impacting socioeconomic and wildlife conservation. A new study raises awareness of the gross pathological features of HPAIV and subsequently aids disease investigation by defining pathological indicators following natural infection. This study, reports gross pathology of HPAI H5N1 in poultry species (chicken, turkey, pheasant, guineafowl, duck, goose), and captive or wild birds (mute swan, tufted duck, jackdaw, peahen, white-tailed eagle) that tested positive between October 2021 and February Read More

Treatment strategy for the control of roundworm infections in laying hens

Vet Rec Open . 2022 May 30;9(1):e37. doi: 10.1002/vro2.37 11 June, 2022 Ascaridia galli is a widespread problem in cage-free egg production. Sustainable control of nematode infections is a key component in this sector. A primary concern about the use of anthelmintics is always the risk of the development of resistance to these compounds. A new study investigates the effect of a treatment strategy against A. galli, aiming to propose a guideline for anthelmintic use on commercial poultry farms.
According to the study monitoring for A. galli should start at approximately 7 weeks post-placement and should be repeated every 8 weeks until hens are 50 weeks old. Treatment should be given only if moderate to high faecal egg counts are observed. Treatments after this point may be repeated every 8 weeks without eventually performing a faecal test. Read More

CDC: Salmonella outbreaks linked to backyard poultry

11 June, 2022 CDC and public health officials in many states are collecting different types of data to investigate multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections with serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Infantis, and Typhimurium. As of June 2, 2022, a total of 219 people infected (1 fatally) with one of the outbreak strains have been reported from 38 states. A wide age range was reported, with 26% of the patients children younger than 5. Read More

Impact to public health of products contaminated with Salmonella enterica imported into the UK from Brazil

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1010174 4 June, 2022 Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease; in humans, consumption of contaminated poultry meat is believed to be a major source. New research determine that S. enterica serovars Heidelberg and Minnesota were the most prevalent serovars in Brazilian poultry and in poultry products imported from Brazil into the UK. However, long-term surveillance data collected by the UK Health Security Agency showed no increase in the incidence of Salmonella Heidelberg or Salmonella Minnesota in human cases of clinical disease in the UK following the increase of these two serovars in Brazilian poultry. Long-term surveillance data collected in the UK showed no increase in the incidence of Salmonella Heidelberg or Salmonella Minnesota in human cases of clinical disease in the UK following the increase of these two serovars in Brazilian poultry. Read More

FSIS: denies petition seeking to declare 31 salmonella strains as meat adulterants

4 June, 2022 USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has denied a petition Marler Clark LLC filed in January 2020 asking the agency to declare 31 serotypes of salmonella as adulterants in meat and poultry products subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act just, as it has done for certain strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in certain beef products.
Rachel Edelstein, assistant administrator of FSIS’s Office of Policy and Program Development, informed the Seattle-based law firm that: "FSIS does not believe that there is sufficient data available at this time to support the sweeping actions requested in your petition." Read More

Infectious bronchitis: practical vaccination programme in laying hens

de Wit, J. J., et al. (2022) Avian Pathology. 51:1-13‏ 4 June, 2022 To achieve long-term protection of laying and breeding hens against aberrant egg production caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a vaccination programme incorporating both live-attenuated and inactivated IBV vaccines is required. High-quality IBV vaccines of both types are widely available, but the number of IBV variants of global importance continues to increase and it is not possible to develop vaccines against each one of them. Therefore, it is desirable to perform studies under controlled conditions to determine which IBV vaccine(s) provide the best protection for laying hens against different IBV challenges. Read More

Italy: AMR in Campylobacter jejuni 2011–2021

EFSA 3 June, 2022 Campylobacter jejuni is considered as the main pathogen in human food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Over the past years, several studies have reported antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in C. jejuni strains. In Europe, the official monitoring of AMR comprises the testing of Campylobacter spp. from food-producing animals because this microorganism is responsible for human infections and usually predominant in poultry. Concerns are growing due to the current classification of C. jejuni by the WHO as a "high priority pathogen" due to the emergence of resistance to multiple drugs such as those belonging to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and other classes, which limits the treatment alternatives. Read More

USDA: Additional funds to support HPAI response

27 May, 2022 The USDA said it approved the transfer of $400 million from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to fund the outbreak response. The move follows a $130 million transfer in March and a $263 million transfer in late April.
The CCC was established in the 1930s to stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices. These funds have been used to address indemnity, diagnostics, field activities, and other emergency response costs. Since the last CCC funding transfer was approved in April, there have been detections in 151 new flocks, including flocks in 9 new states, and affecting more than 10.8 million commercial and backyard birds. Read More

Canada: HPAI in Alberta skunks

25 May, 2022 Cases of HPAI have been confirmed in 5 skunks in the Vegreville-Wainwright-Lloydminster area in east-central Alberta.
All five had the same symptoms — blindness, seizures and cloudy eyes. Read More

HPAI confirmed in 3 baby red foxes in Michigan

12 May, 2022 The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) received confirmation that three red fox kits died from highly pathogenic avian influenza – the state’s first such confirmation of the HPAI virus in wild mammals. The fox kits, collected between April 1 and April 14, came from three separate dens in Lapeer, Macomb and St. Clair counties.
The DNR had received a report from a wildlife rehabilitator in southeastern Michigan about the fox kits exhibiting neurologic signs of HPAI before death. The kits were observed circling, tremoring and seizing. Two of the three died within hours of intake, while one appeared to respond to supportive therapy but then died in care. Interestingly, an additional kit that was a sibling of the Macomb County kit did survive, but developed blindness, making her non-releasable. This kit will be housed at a local nature center. Read More

Wild fox in Minnesota tests positive for HPAI

11 May, 2022 A wild fox from Anoka County has tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). This is the first confirmed case of HPAI in a wild mammal in the USA. The University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory alerted the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), which is responsible for monitoring the health of the state’s wildlife. The National Veterinary Services Laboratory later confirmed the positive test earlier this week. Read More

HPAI (H5N1) virus detected in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ontario

5 May, 2022 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the Animal Health Laboratory, the CWHC ON/NU diagnosed influenza A (H5N1) in 2 wild fox kits in Ontario, on May 2, 2022. These cases represent the first detections of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage in wild mammals in Ontario, Canada and in the Americas. One was dead and one had severe neurologic symptoms and died shortly after admission. H5N1 was found in brain tissue samples, and officials said the virus was likely the cause of death. Read More

Prevalence and levels of Campylobacter in broiler chicken in Ireland in 2017–2018

International Journal of Food Microbiology 372 (2022) 3 May, 2022 An up-to-date data on Campylobacter carriage and carcass contamination in Irish broilers - a new study. Monthly samples were collected from the three largest broiler processing plants in Ireland over a twelve-month period. Samples were taken from both first and final thin birds (partial and full depopulation) from 358 batches of broilers. From each batch, a composite sample of 10 caecal contents (n = 358) and 5 neck skins (n = 1790) were collected and numbers of Campylobacter in each sample were determined. Of the 1790 neck skin samples tested, 53% were Campylobacter positive.
Campylobacter was detected in the caecal contents of 66% of all batches tested. Depopulation and/or age had a significant effect on Campylobacter prevalence with 67% of final thin broilers yielding Campylobacter-positive neck skin samples in contrast to 38% of first thin broilers that yielded positive neck skin samples. Read More

Study: >25% of study participants contaminated salad with raw poultry

Journal of Food Protection (2022) 85 (4): 615–625. 2 May, 2022 In a study aimed at assessing the impact of washing poultry on kitchen contamination, researchers found that more than a quarter of study participants contaminated salad with raw poultry – including many study participants who did not wash the poultry.
The study highlights the importance of hand-washing and cleaning and sanitizing the kitchen in order to reduce the risk of foodborne illness when cooking at home.
This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a consumer poultry washing educational intervention that included video observation of meal preparation with participants who self-reported washing poultry. Treatment group participants received three e-mail messages containing information that the U.S. Department of Agriculture has used on social media sites (video and infographics) related to poultry preparation, including advising against washing chicken. Read More

HPAI virus incursions in Germany during 2020-21

King et al (2022) Virus Evolution, 8(1): 1–7 30 April, 2022 A new study aims to portray a comprehensive (phylo-) genetic analysis of all detected sub- and genotypes from the 2020–21 HPAIV season in Germany. Since the first incursion into Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N8 of clade 2.3.4.4b in 2016,Germany has seen a whole series of novel incursions with distinct reassortants. From October 2020 to July 2021, five different subtypes (H5N8, H5N5, H5N1, H5N4, and H5N3) and seven genotypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4b were detected in a broad array of avian hosts in Germany. Read More

Colorado: A Human HPAI H5 infection

29 April, 2022 The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment has been monitoring and testing people exposed to poultry and wild birds infected with avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. Earlier this week, a test revealed the presence of the H5 virus in a single nasal specimen from a person who was working on a farm with infected poultry. CDC confirmed the result on April 27, 2022. Repeat testing on the person was negative for influenza.
The adult male, who is younger than 40, is largely asymptomatic, reporting only fatigue. He is now isolating and receiving the influenza antiviral drug oseltamivir per CDC guidance. Read More

Mexico: Outbreak of HPAI H7N3 in two farms in Coahuila

24 April, 2022 The National Service for Agrifood Health, Safety and Quality (Senasica), confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N3 in two commercial poultry production buildings (Broiler breeders) in the municipality of General Cepeda, Coahuila. Laboratory tests carried out in Senasica laboratories confirmed that the outbreak corresponds to the strain that has existed in some regions of Mexico since 2012. An immediate slaughter of 70,000 birds was ordered. Read More

Avian influenza in the Netherlands

Source: Wageningen University & Reasearch 22 April, 2022 In the avian influenza season of 2021/2022, multiple highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infections on Dutch poultry farms have been identified by Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR). To prevent the virus from spreading, the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) has culled the animals at these farms. Read More

HPAI in Great Britain

22 April, 2022 High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Great Britain during the epizootic since 1 October 2021 Read More

Why turkeys are highly susceptible to HPAI?

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2022.198771 21 April, 2022 Turkeys, the third major poultry species in the world, are known to show broad susceptibility to various avian influenza viruses (AIVs).
In Europe and North America, where turkey consumption is popular, outbreaks of high and low pathogenicity avian influenza in turkeys have been frequently documented. To elucidate the molecular basis of the broad susceptibility of turkeys to duck and chicken AIVs, a new study characterized various receptors for AIVs on their tissues. Read More

A synergistic effect between MDV and REV

Front Vet Sci . 2022 Mar 22 21 April, 2022 Coinfection of viruses generally influences the disease pattern compared with a single infection. The outcome of coinfection usually is viral interference. Besides interference, coinfections of viruses may also enhance viral replication and virulence. Coinfection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes synergistic pathogenic effects and serious losses to the poultry industry. Read More

Gizzard erosions in broiler chickens in Sweden

21 April, 2022 Investigation of the first outbreaks of adenoviral gizzard erosions (AGE) in Sweden is described in a paper published in Av Path (11 Apr 2022).Lesions consistent with AGE (detached koilin layers, discolouration, bleeding, erosions) were identified in gizzards in five flocks. The demonstration of FAdV species A, serotype 1, in organ and tissue samples, and identification of typical histopathological lesions in gizzards, strongly indicates that the virus was the underlaying cause of the observed gizzard lesions. Read More

HPAI in Pennsylvania, USA

17 April, 2022 The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture confirmed the state's first positive case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in domestic poultry, in two flocks of commercial layer chickens on a Lancaster County. Read More

HPAI detected in Quebec, another in Ontario

14 April, 2022 Avian influenza has been confirmed at two sites in Quebec and another in Ontario. A farm in St-Claude, was found positive to the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of avian influenza. The company, Brome Lake Ducks, says the farm is a breeding duck farm. CFIA also said it had confirmed high-path H5N1 avian influenza in another commercial poultry flock and imposed a quarantine at Markham, Ont., just north of Toronto. Two other separate poultry flocks at Markham were confirmed with the virus last week. Read More

HPAI in Montana

9 April, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the first two outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in two flocks in Montana – a non-commercial, backyard flock (poultry) in Cascade County, and a non-commercial, backyard flock (non-poultry) in Judith Basin County. Read More

Pathogenicity of the QX-type IBV to different segments of the oviduct

8 April, 2022 The QX-type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has become the predominant genotype worldwide in recent years and has caused serious economic losses to the chicken industry. The most significant feature of QX IBV is that its infection in the early growing stage can cause abnormal oviduct development, resulting in a high proportion of ‘false layers’ in poultry flocks of laying hens and breeders. However, few studies have evaluated whether infections of QX-type IBV in laying stages can also cause severe pathological changes in the oviduct.
In new study, 300-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected either with the QX-type strain QXL or Massachusetts (Mass)-type strain M41 to compare their pathogenicity on different segments of the oviduct. Read More

HPAI: to vaccinate or not to vaccinate

4 April, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture is looking into vaccines as an option to protect poultry against deadly avian influenza, the agency’s chief veterinary officer, Rosemary Sifford said.
The USDA's Agricultural Research Service is investigating the potential for a vaccine that could be distinguished from the wild type of virus spread to poultry, Rosemary Sifford said in an interview. Read More

USA: HPAI in graphics

4 April, 2022 In total, from the beginning of February 2022 until today (4/03), 117 outbreaks were reported. The total number of U.S. states reporting HPAI in birds has reached twenty-four states, depopulating more than 22 million birds. Read More

HPAI in Texas

3 April, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial pheasant flock (poultry) in Erath County, Texas. Read More

Canada: Avian influenza found at southern Ontario poultry farms

31 March, 2022 On March 27, 2022, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI), subtype H5N1, in a poultry flock in southern Ontario. Read More

Iowa: more cases of HPAI

30 March, 2022 The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed two positive cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Iowa. The confirmed cases were in a commercial turkey flock in Hamilton County, Iowa and a commercial layer flock in Guthrie County, Iowa. Read More

Mass mortality of Pelicans observed in Greece due to HPAI

28 March, 2022 A major outbreak of avian influenza has struck the Prespa National Park in north-western Greece. Particularly hard hit have been the Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus), whose colony at Lake Prespa is the largest in the world.
The Society for the Protection of Prespa (SPP) reports that the mass mortality of birds started around mid of February, about a week after the first pelicans had arrived in Prespa from their wintering grounds in Turkey and North-Eastern Greece. In a bit more than a week, a total of 209 Dalmatian pelican corpses were recorded in the colony. Moreover, many still living birds displayed neurological symptoms.
On the first days of March 574 Dalmatian pelicans were dead already. All pelicans were adult birds in breeding plumage and the carcasses were located on the nesting islands or close by in the water. Read More

The Intercontinental spread HPAI H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4 virus to the United States, 2021

26 March, 2022 In a new study published in the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emerging Infectious Diseases, researchers detected Eurasian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus belonging to the Gs/GD lineage, clade 2.3.4.4b, in wild waterfowl in 2 Atlantic coastal states in the United States. Bird banding data showed widespread movement of waterfowl within the Atlantic Flyway and between neighboring flyways and northern breeding grounds.
Data reported in the study, in combination with the recent highly pathogenic AIV findings in Newfoundland, Canada, suggest that wild bird surveillance captured the introduction of a Eurasian-origin highly pathogenic AIV into wild birds by the Atlantic Flyway of the United States. The potential introduction pathway probably includes wild bird migratory routes from northern Europe that overlap Arctic regions of North America and then dispersal farther south into Canada and the United States. Read More

Campylobacter infections in France in 2020

26 March, 2022 In 2020, surveillance of Campylobacter infections confirmed the epidemiological and biological trends already observed in recent years:
a predominance of the species C. jejuni ;
higher number of cases and incidence in children;
a predominance of infections in men, except in people aged 30 to 39;
a seasonal peak during the summer period;
high resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, which has remained stable in recent years;
no notable increase in the resistance rates of the six antibiotics tested routinely;
the consumption of poultry as the first food (incriminated or suspected) source of contamination in episodes of collective food poisoning. Read More

Nebraska: 570,000 broiler chickens to be destroyed due to HPAI

23 March, 2022 Nebraska has confirmed its first case of avian influenza in a commercial flock of chickens (Lincoln Premium Poultry).
The state Department of Agriculture said the highly contagious disease has been found in a flock of 570,000 broiler chickens in Butler County.
The flock is on a farm that raises chickens sent for processing at the company's Costco-affiliated operation in Fremont. Read More

HPAI confirmed in a Romanian poultry farm

20 March, 2022 On March 18, 2022, the Romania’s Institute for Diagnosis and Animal Health confirmed an HPAI outbreak, sub-type H5N1, in a 33,900 commercial laying hens located in Branistea/Oinacu village, Giurgiu county (southern Romania). All birds will be culled. This marks the first outbreak in nearly one year, as the most recent HPAI outbreak was confirmed in May 2021, in a 180,000-bird commercial poultry farm. Read More

HPAI at a chicken layer farm - Buena Vista County Iowa

19 March, 2022 The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed a second positive case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Buena Vista County, Iowa. The virus was found in a flock of commercial layer chickens with 5.3 million chickens. This is the second confirmed case of HPAI in Buena Vista County, Iowa. The first case was in a commercial turkey flock on March 6. Read More

Salmonella and E. coli in frozen RTC chicken and turkey products in England tested in 2020

Int J Food Microbiol 369 (2022) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2022.109609 18 March, 2022 Comminuted, reformulated, frozen chicken products including food such as chicken nuggets have been implicated in causing human salmonellosis. A multi-country Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreak involving several strains with >400 reported human cases in the UK occurred in 2020. Initially S. Infantis was detected in one sample from a case home but S. Enteritidis was then also isolated using a S. Enteritidis specific PCR in combination with isolation via a Craigie-tube. This prompted a survey to examine the presence and levels of Salmonella and E. coli in ready-to-cook FR poultry products in England in 2020. Read More

First case of HPAI detected on Kent County, Delaware farm

18 March, 2022 Federal laboratory testing has confirmed a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI) case in a commercial broiler farm in Kent County, Delaware. Following an investigation by the Delaware Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratory confirmed poultry from this farm tested positive for highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI). Read More

HPAI in a backyard Flock in New Hampshire

18 March, 2022 Highly pathogenic avian influenza has been found in a backyard flock in New Hampshire.
The flock is in Rockingham County. Read More

USDA confirms HPAI in a backyard flock in Nebraska

16 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a non-commercial backyard flock (non-poultry) in Merrick County, Nebraska. Read More

HPAI in a second layer farm in Cecil county

16 March, 2022 A second layer farm in Cecil County, Maryland, owned by the same company and about 0.35 miles from 1st Cecil County farm has been found HPAI positive. Read More

HPAI in a commercial chicken operation in Wisconsin

14 March, 2022 State animal health officials have quarantined the property in southern Wisconsin's Jefferson County, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) west of Milwaukee. 2,760,000 chickens will be destroyed. Read More

HPAI confirmed in S. Dakota turkey flock

13 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial turkey flock in Charles Mix County, South Dakota.
36,000 will be culled. Read More

Iowa: HPAI in Taylor County

12 March, 2022 The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed a positive case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Taylor County, Iowa. The virus was found in a flock of commercial layer chickens. Read More

Canada restricts imports from AI-affected US states

12 March, 2022 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) issued a press release announcing new restrictions against the movement of poultry products from avian influenza-impacted US states.
All raw poultry and all poultry products and by-products that are not fully cooked, including eggs and raw pet foods, sourced, processed, or packaged from the restricted zones in the states below are under restriction until further notice. Read More

HPAI in Kansas and Illinois

12 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a backyard mixed species poultry flock in Franklin County, Kansas and a non-commercial backyard flock (non-poultry) in Mclean County, Illinois. Read More

France to cull millions more poultry as HPAI hits west

12 March, 2022 France is to slaughter several million poultry birds in the second mass cull of flocks this winter as the country tries to contain outbreaks of avian influenza.
After a wave of cases in the southwest led to the culling of around 4 million birds, the disease has spread rapidly since last month in the Pays de la Loire region, another major poultry zone further up France's west coast. The authorities had slaughtered 1.2 million birds so far in the region and expect to cull another 3 million. By wiping out the populations where the virus is spreading, officials hope to shorten the outbreak and prevent it from reaching other poultry-raising regions. Read More

HPAI reported in turkey flock in Missouri

10 March, 2022 The Missouri Department of Agriculture confirmed another outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on a poultry farm in Lawrence County. 37,770 commercial Turkey breeder replacement hens will be culled. Read More

Two additional cases of HPAI confirmed on Delaware and Maryland farms

9 March, 2022 Federal laboratory testing has confirmed two cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI)—one pullet operation in New Castle County, Delaware, and one broiler flock in Queen Anne’s County, Maryland. Read More

HPAI in Missouri

9 March, 2022 Missouri reports two more outbreaks of avian influenza:
A backyard flock housing 51 birds in Bates County and a commercial turkey flock in Jasper with 27,000 birds. Read More

Second Iowa avian influenza outbreak

8 March, 2022 Avian influenza has been detected in a second flock in Iowa. This time it is a commercial turkey flock - 50,000 birds. Read More

HPAI confirmed in Maryland chicken flock

6 March, 2022 Federal laboratory testing has confirmed a case of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI) on a Maryland poultry farm. A flock of commercial layer chickens in Cecil County, Maryland. Read More

Avian Influenza in a chicken flock in southeast Missouri

5 March, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a flock of commercial broiler chickens (294,700) in Stoddard County, Missouri. Read More

HPAI in a backyard flock in western Iowa

4 March, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture said it confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza in the flock of fewer than 50 birds in Pottawattamie County. Read More

Avian influenza found at 6th Indiana turkey farm

2 March, 2022 H5 HPAI has been confirmed in the fourth Turkey farm in Dubois County (0.6 miles south of the 3rd farm. Laboratory testing of a commercial flock of turkeys in Dubois County has identified H5 avian influenza virus. This is considered a presumptive-positive case, and samples are being verified at the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Iowa.
This is the sixth farm (known as Dubois4) in Indiana to be diagnosed with avian influenza Read More

USA: two more cases of HPAI

1 March, 2022 Laboratory-confirmed cases of avian influenza have been identified in Dutchess (Backyard Mixed Species, non-poultry) and Ulster County (Captive Wild Birds, non-poultry). Read More

USA: Second case of HPAI detected in backyard birds in Knox County

24 February, 2022 USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed the presence of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a sample taken from a second small flock of non-commercial backyard birds (non-poultry) in Knox County. This property is located approximately 3-km from the initial property where HPAI was previously detected. Read More

Avian influenza: the situation in France

24 February, 2022 Since the beginning of August, many outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been detected in wildlife or in farms in Europe, particularly along the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. In recent months, the health authorities of many Member States (the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, etc.) have notified outbreaks in poultry farms (turkeys and broiler chickens, laying hens). Twenty-nine countries are now affected across the whole of the European continent, which has recorded nearly 400 outbreaks in livestock and 700 cases in wildlife.
France: A first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza was detected on 26 November in a commercial laying hen farm in the commune of Warhem, in the Nord department . This is the first case on farms since last winter's epizootic which lasted until spring 2021. Several other farms have since been affected and new cases have been detected in wildlife. Read More

USA: HPAI detected in Michigan backyard flock

24 February, 2022 Following an investigation by the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD), the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) has confirmed the discovery of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a non-commercial backyard flock in Kalamazoo County. Read More

Testicular atrophy in broiler breeders

Gallardo et al (2022) Av Dis - https://doi.org/10.1637/21-00108 23 February, 2022 Infectious bronchitis is a respiratory disease of chickens caused by a gammacoronavirus named infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus of chickens, is one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. The name of the disease refers to its most frequent clinical manifestation, although it can infect many other epithelial cells, including the kidney, genital organs and many parts of the alimentary tract. A case report published in Av Dis (Jan 2022) report a case of decreased reproductive efficiency due to male infertility in 33- to 38-wk-old broiler breeders. At necropsy, the males presented with urates deposited on the skin around the vent and testicular asymmetry due to marked unilateral atrophy. In addition to the testicular lesions and IBV presence in testes, serum testosterone levels in roosters from the affected flocks were significantly low. Read More

Avian influenza in Delaware

23 February, 2022 Avian influenza found in Delaware chicken flock (commercial egg type layers).
Testing has confirmed a case of avian influenza on a Delaware poultry farm that showed increased mortality over the past few days. Following an investigation by the Delaware Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratory has confirmed poultry from this farm have tested positive for highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI).
The farm is under quarantine to stop the spread of avian influenza to other flocks in the state. The birds on the affected farm (Egg-production complex), 1.2M - will be depopulated. Read More

Two new cases of HPAI in Indiana

23 February, 2022 On Feb. 18, laboratory testing identified H5 avian influenza in a commercial turkey flock in Greene County (known as Greene2). A total of 15,400 turkeys were depopulated.
On Feb. 23 Laboratory testing of a commercial flock of turkeys in Dubois County has identified H5 avian influenza virus. This is considered a presumptive-positive case, and samples are being verified at the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Iowa. Read More

HPAI in New York

20 February, 2022 A highly pathogenic avian influenza has been detected in a non-commercial backyard flock of birds on Long Island in New York.
Samples from the flock were tested at the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center, part of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network, and confirmed at the APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. Read More

HPAI in a non-commercial backyard flock in Maine

20 February, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a non-commercial backyard flock (non-poultry) in Knox County, Maine. Read More

Indiana: Greene County flock infected with avian influenza

18 February, 2022 Indiana's Board of Animal Health is reporting a 3rd turkey farm affected by HPAI H5 (presumably H5N1), this time in Greene County, which lies roughly 40 miles north of Dubois County.
A high death rate of turkeys in Greene County led to the laboratory testing of the flock. Read More

New case of HPAI in Indiana

16 February, 2022 Indiana, Dubois County is reporting another case of Avian Influenza on a commercial turkey farm that houses more than 26,500 birds.
Laboratory testing of a commercial flock of young turkeys in Dubois County has identified the H5N1 avian influenza virus. Read More

HPAI in a turkey flock in Kentucky

15 February, 2022 Kentucky officials confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in samples taken from the premise in Webster County, Kentucky. 53,300 birds will be culled. Read More

Another HPAI case confirmed in Nova Scotia

15 February, 2022 On February 11, 2022, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI), subtype H5N1, at a mixed farm in western Nova Scotia, which includes poultry and products for local sale. Read More

USDA: HPAI in a flock of broilers in Kentucky & backyard poultry in Virginia

15 February, 2022 USDA Confirms Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in a flock of commercial broiler chickens in Kentucky and backyard mixed species flock in Virginia.
The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds in two states – a flock of commercial broiler chickens (240,000) in Fulton County, Kentucky, and a backyard flock of mixed species birds in Fauquier County, Virginia. Read More

More HPAI cases in Spain

12 February, 2022 Spanish authorities have slaughtered more than 130,000 hens after an outbreak of avian influenza was detected at an intensive farming operation in the northern region of Castile and Leon (Íscar).
At the end of January, poultry at a farm in Andalusia, Spain’s southernmost autonomous region tested positive for the H5N1 HPAI virus. 41,000 birds were culled. Read More

USA: HPAI in an Indiana turkey flock

10 February, 2022 The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in an Indiana turkey flock. The H5N1 is of the Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong H5 clade 2.3.4.4b.
Samples from the affected flock, which experienced increased mortality, were tested at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University, part of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network, and confirmed at the APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, IA. Read More

Multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis infections linked to eggs

EFSA 8 February, 2022 On 2 September 2021, France reported a cluster of 46 cases with Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 infections since June2021 in the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s (ECDC’s) EpiPulse system (event ID 2021-FWD-00065). By 11 January 2022, 272 confirmed cases had been reported in five European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries and the United Kingdom (UK): Denmark (n=3), France (n=216), the Netherlands (n=12), Norway (n=7), Spain (n=22), and the UK (n=12) in 2021. Two deaths were recorded in adult men. Twenty-five cases were hospitalised. Sixty cases reported consumption of eggs/egg products.
Some cases reported in France in 2021 had visited restaurants serving eggs distributed by a common supplier, Spanish Packing Centre A. The eggs originated from three Spanish farms, one testing positive for the outbreak strain. Fresh table eggs from the farms linked to the outbreak were withdrawn and redirected for use in heat-treated egg products. No other countries receive Read More

H5N1 in Maryland wild bird

8 February, 2022 Maryland is the fifth state to report the virus, following South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Florida.
The detection marks the 91st recent identification of H5N1 or H5 on the US East Coast. Read More

Canada: HPAI at a turkey farm

5 February, 2022 On January 30th, 2022, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) was notified of high mortality in a commercial turkey farm in Western Nova Scotia. The CFIA National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease has confirmed that the virus was H5N1, similar to the viruses reported in non-poultry and wild birds recently in the provinces of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The virus has HA cleavage site motif “PLREKRRK/GLF” consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza strains of H5 subtype.The HA gene segment is A/goose/Guangdong/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage belonging to 2.3.4.4B clade. Phylogenic analysis indicates this virus corresponds to the Eurasian lineage circulating in 2021 in Europe. Read More

Recall of chicken product due to 'presence of salmonella'

5 February, 2022 A batch of Roosters Gluten Free Breaded Chicken Fillet Goujons is being recalled due to the presence of Salmonella.
Point-of-sale recall notices will be displayed in Aldi stores supplied with the implicated batch. Read More

Canada: another H5N1 case

1 February, 2022 HPAI H5N1 has been detected in Grand Desert, Nova Scotia in a Canada Goose.Since the confirmation of the case, a hobby farm located in Porters Lake has lost nearly their entire flock - 59 of 60 birds. Read More

Salmonellosis in Australia 2020

Communicable Diseases Intelligence - https://doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2022.46.2 31 January, 2022 More than seventy per cent of salmonellosis in Australia is thought to be due to contaminated food.
Rates of salmonellosis vary across the Australian states and territories, with the highest rates in the Northern Territory.
In 2020, to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Australia implemented public health measures including border closures, physical distancing and hygiene advice. A new study analyses salmonellosis notification rates in 2020 and considers possible impacts of COVID-19 measures. Read More

Moldova: first report of HPAI

28 January, 2022 Moldova registers first detection of H5N1 HPAI in poultry. For Moldova, the outbreak was the country’s first ever recorded. Read More

Spain: HPAI at a turkey farm

18 January, 2022 Spain has reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus on a farm north of Madrid.
The outbreak started on Jan. 13 on a farm of 18,900 birds, 10 weeks of age, in the village of Cantalejo. Read More

USDA confirms additional HPAI finds in wild birds

18 January, 2022 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed two additional findings of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in wild birds – one in Colleton County, South Carolina and one in Hyde County, North Carolina. Read More

The economic value of the H7N9 vaccination program in poultry in Guangxi - China

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 200 (2022) 105580 17 January, 2022 Influenza A (H7N9) virus was first isolated from humans in March 2013 in China. It has also been detected in poultry in China in the same month and since then has spread across the country. China launched a series of policies to control the disease since April 2013, including:
(1) a disease surveillance programme in poultry; (2) closing live bird markets (LBMs) and controlling the movement of live poultry when infection in people or poultry were reported; (3) improving biosecurity of LBMs; and (4) the promotion of poultry meat trade to consumers over live bird value chains. Despite these interventions, there was only partial compliance with these measures. Highly pathogenic strains of H7N9 virus have been detected in humans and poultry since January 2017, posing an increased threat of infection.
China launched a H7N9 vaccination program in poultry, starting from the Guangxi and Guangdong provinces inJuly 2017, followed by other provinces in September 2017, as a response to a steep in Read More

China: Salmonella outbreak linked to eggs

Front. Microbiol., 22 November 2021 16 January, 2022 A Salmonella outbreak linked to egg fried rice in China affected more than 220 people this past year. The outbreak occurred in Beijing in March 2021 with 225 of 324 diners who ate at a canteen showing gastrointestinal symptoms. Epidemiological investigations and lab tests confirmed the outbreak was related to undercooked egg fried rice. Salmonella enteritidis was recovered from eggs. So the contaminated egg fried rice may be related to raw eggs carrying S. enteritidis. Read More

European AI viruses to cross the Atlantic to North America

bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.13.476155 16 January, 2022 On December 20, 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) confirmed the presence of HPAI subtype H5N1 at a multi-species exhibition farm in the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe and Africa, but are currently absent from Oceania and the Americas. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were most closely related to HPAI GsGd viruses circulating in northwestern Europe in spring 2021. Read More

USA: HPAI in a wild duck

15 January, 2022 A wild duck harvested by a hunter is infected with the Eurasian H5 type of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).
The American wigeon bird was tested by the Clemson University Veterinary Diagnostic Center in Columbia. Read More

2nd HPAI case in Newfoundland, Canada

13 January, 2022 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency says avian influenza has killed chickens at a small backyard farm (17 birds) on the Avalon Peninsula. Read More

The Norwegian Zoonoses Report 2020

10 January, 2022 Salmonellosis: The number of reported cases of salmonellosis in humans (440) decreased in 2020 compared to the previous four years. The surveillance programme for Salmonella includes testing of live animals (pigs, poultry and cattle) and fresh meat (pigs and cattle). From altogether 8,882 faecal samples in 1,342 poultry holdings one broiler flock was positive for Salmonella, giving an estimated Salmonella prevalence of 0.02% in poultry flocks for slaughter. The number of salmonellosis cases in humans has decreased over the past 10 years. The number of cases infected in Norway has remained relatively stable with an incidence of 3.6 to 6.1 in the last 5 years (2015- 2019) but decreased to 3.2 in 2020, probably due to measurements against COVID-19 in Norway. The reduced prevalence of Salmonella in European poultry is presumed to contribute to the observed reduction. Read More

First report of avian infuenza in Spain

8 January, 2022 The HPAI H5N1 strain has now hit Spain. The influenza virus was detected in four swans and a stork that were found dead in the Segre river in Lleida, Catalonia.
For now, the National Avian Influenza Surveillance Programme in Spain has decreed that the outbreak should not lead to commercial restrictions on the movement of live birds or their products. Read More

A case of avian influenza in a person in the South West of England

6 January, 2022 This is clearly going to be big news but the key thing is that human infections with H5N1 are really rare (fewer than 1000 worldwide since 2003) and they almost always occur as a result of direct, long term contact with poultry. The case was detected by officials swabbing people who had close contact with infected flocks. Laboratory analysis revealed the virus was the 'H5N1' type found in birds. The person (79-year-old Alan Gosling, a retired engineer) acquired the infection from very close, regular contact with a large number of infected birds (ducks), which they kept in and around their home over a prolonged period of time. Read More

Second case of avian influenza in Canada

3 January, 2022 Environment Canada says a highly pathogenic avian influenza first identified on a farm on the Avalon Peninsula has been found in birds around the St. John's area.
Environment Canada had confirmed the H5N1 virus, has been found in wild birds in areas like Bowring Park, Quidi Vidi Lake and other areas frequented by flocks of birds.
Cases of H5N1 were first identified on the island around mid-December on an exhibition farm on the island. Read More