Infectious Diseases 2021

Infectious Diseases 2021

Causes for routine Salmonella monitoring false-positive test results

Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2215 28 November, 2021 The Salmonella monitoring program, as outlined in the EU Commission regulation 200/2010, asks for repeated sampling in order to ascertain progress in achievement of the EU target. According to Article 2.2.2.2.c of this regulation, the competent authority may decide to do a resample and retest when it has reasons to question the results of initial testing.
In the Netherlands, the competent authorities have been resampling and retesting all initial positive samplings for several years because of doubts about false positive initial test results in breeging farms. An analysis of population data in the period 2015–2019 indicates that 48% of initial samplings at the farm were classified as false positive after resampling and retesting by the competent authorities. Read More

Minnesota: Kandiyohi County turkey flock tests positive for H5 LPAI

24 November, 2021 Routine testing by the Minnesota Board of Animal Health found H5 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in a commercial turkey flock in Kandiyohi County, which has been confirmed by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratories.
Testing birds before they go to market is standard protocol for poultry flocks in Minnesota. Read More

Italy: avian influenza outbreaks October-November 2021

22 November, 2021 Since 19 October 2021 the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus various poultry farms. Most of the viruses were characterized as subtype H5N1. The positivities concern primarily industrial farms, mainly meat turkey farms in Verona province. Read More

WHO: Assessment of risk associated with HPAI A(H5N6) virus

22 November, 2021 The rise in numbers of reported human cases of A(H5N6) infection may reflect the spread of these viruses in poultry and an increased diagnostic capacity and awareness for respiratory illness etiology amongst human health systems in China and likely elsewhere. The increased sensitivity of diagnostic systems is a direct outcome from the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
With continued circulation of the virus in birds, human infections will continue. It is unclear if the A(H5N6) viruses have enhanced intrinsic zoonotic potential. Although genetic markers known to be associated with mammalian adaptation have been identified sporadically in individual cases following infection, these changes were not consistently present in environmental or poultry viruses and likely reflect intra-host mutations. Read More

Avian influenza H5N1 in Britain

22 November, 2021 Since 1 October 2021, HPAI H5N1 events in wild birds have been reported at 35 different locations across GB. In addition, to 22 November, there have been 15 confirmed report cases of HPAI H5N1 in domestic poultry or captive birds made up of six confirmed cases in backyard premises, two cases in commercial (layer/broiler) chickens, four in finishing turkeys, and one case in breeding turkeys. There have been two cases of HPAI H5N1 confirmed in captive birds in wildlife/rescue sanctuaries. Thirteen of the cases occurred in England and one each in Scotland and Wales. Read More

Hungary reports H5N1 avian influenza

22 November, 2021 Hungary has reported six outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu virus among farm poultry.
Read More

Avian Influenza H5N1 confirmed in a turkey flock in Monaghan, Ireland

21 November, 2021 The Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine has confirmed that test results have identified evidence of Avian Influenza H5N1 in samples from a turkey flock in Co. Monaghan. As a consequence restriction zones are being set up around the area where additional movement control and surveillance measures will be put in place. Read More

South Korea confirms 6 cases of highly pathogenic bird flu

21 November, 2021 The number of cases of HPAI H5N1 in South Korea has grown to six.
The country's sixth avian influenza outbreak was detected at a duck farm in the Gangjin county in the South Jeolla province. Read More

Influenza A(H9N2) - human cases

ECDC 19 November, 2021 A new case of human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) was reported from China. The case is a 39-year-old male from Qiandongnan Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Prefecture. The case developed symptoms on 29 October 2021 and was hospitalised the same day with severe condition. He died on 1 November 2021. Read More

Israel: two HPAI outbreaks

18 November, 2021 Israel has reported two outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1.
The reported outbreaks are at a turkey farm on Ein Tzurim in southern Israel, and on aduck farm at Kfar Baruch in the north. Read More

Japan: more HPAI cases

17 November, 2021 On November 10, Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries confirmed a detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial layer flock near Yokote City, Akita Prefecture. This was followed by detection of two more cases in Izumi City, Kagoshima Prefecture, on November 13th and 15th. In total, about 193,000 chickens will be culled. Read More

Avian influenza confirmed in Norway

16 November, 2021 Norway reported its first-ever highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu outbreak in poultry.
The Norwegian Veterinary Institute has detected the avian influenza H5N1 virus in a herd of 7,500 laying hens in Klepp municipality in Rogaland. Read More

UK: HPAI outbreak at farm near Alcester

10 November, 2021 Avian influenza H5N1 has been confirmed in a small poultry unit at a premises near Alcester, Bidford, Warwickshire. Further testing has confirmed this to be a highly pathogenic strain (HPAI H5N1). Read More

Japan: first avian influenza outbreak of season

10 November, 2021 Japan has detected its first outbreak of avian influenza for the 2021 winter season, at a chicken farm in the city of Yokote in the northeastern Japan prefecture. Read More

Poland: HPAI outbreaks

9 November, 2021 Five outbreaks, of which four were at fattening turkey farms and one at a chicken broiler farm, were found in the eastern part of the country while another was discovered at a turkey and geese farm in the western part of the country. The outbreaks in Poland are its first involving the subtype since 2008.
Nearly 650,000 birds will be culled. Read More

Togo: H5N1 outbreak at poultry farm

8 November, 2021 Togo has reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu virus on a poultry farm.
3000 Guinea fowls were culled in the outbreaks in Région Maritime. Read More

The incidence and causes of disease potentially transmitted by food in Australia

6 November, 2021 In 2016, a total of 44,455 notifications of enteric diseases potentially related to food were received by state and territory health departments in Australia. Consistent with previous years, campylobacteriosis (n = 24,171) and salmonellosis (n = 18,060) were the most frequently-notified infections. Notable increases in incidence were observed for shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (n = 343; 166% increase), shigellosis (n = 1,408; 93% increase), campylobacteriosis (33% increase) and salmonellosis (30% increase) when compared with the historical five-year mean. The extent to which the introduction of culture-independent testing as a method of diagnosis has contributed to these increases remains unclear. In total, 188 gastrointestinal outbreaks, including 177 foodborne outbreaks, were reported in 2016. Foodborne outbreaks affected 3,639 people, resulting in at least 348 hospital admissions and four deaths. Read More

Avian influenza in Europe

5 November, 2021 Since the beginning of August, 130 cases or outbreaks of avian influenza have been detected in wildlife or in farms in Europe, particularly on the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, including three outbreaks in farms Germans. At the same time, the confinement of all professional farms was decided in the Netherlands following the detection of an outbreak in a farm of laying hens (36,000 birds) in Zeewalde. Another H5N1 outbreak was detected at a broiler farm (107,000 birds) in Grootschermer, and two new outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu among meat ducks (10,000 and 21,000 birds) in Zeewolde. Read More

Avian influenza in Wales

5 November, 2021 Avian influenza H5N1 was confirmed in a small backyard flock of chickens at a premises near Chirk, Wrexham, Wales on 1 November 2021. On 2 November 2021, further testing has confirmed this as a highly pathogenic strain (HPAI H5N1). Following confirmation of the pathogenicity Welsh Government have revoked and replaced the 3km and 10km Temporary Control Zones with a 3km Protection Zone, 10km Surveillance Zone and 10km Restricted Zone. Read More

Avian Influenza in Scotland: H5N1

4 November, 2021 A flock of poultry that tested positive for avian influenza has been culled in Angus, the Scottish government has announced.
A UK-wide avian influenza prevention zone has come into force meaning bird keepers need to follow strict biosecurity measures to help protect their flocks.
The move follows avian flu outbreaks in other parts of the UK. Read More

Avian influenza discovered in poultry farm in northern Israel

31 October, 2021 A flock of breeding turkeys on a farm in Maayan-Tzvi has been found infected by HPAI H5N1. The affected flock is composed of 35-week-old birds.
Preliminary clinical signs were observed on Friday (29 Oct 2021) in the males' coop only, numbering less than 400 birds.
The mortality increased, reaching a total of 9% during the same day [29 Oct 2021]. Individual animals presented neurological signs and stumbling. Necropsy revealed enteritis. Read More

Netherlands: HPAI (H5) in laying hens at poultry farm Zeewolde

27 October, 2021 As of 26 October 2021 at 12:00 pm, Minister Schouten of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality will introduce a compulsory indoor confinement for all companies that keep commercial poultry. The measure was taken in response to a finding of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in laying hens on an organic poultry farm in Zeewolde (Flevoland).
To prevent the virus from spreading, the infected farm in Zeewolde with approximately 36,000 animals is being culled by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). Read More

UK: Non-typhoidal Salmonella data 2019

UK Health Security Agency 26 October, 2021 The main points of the 2019 Salmonella report
• The number of reported Salmonella cases in England decreased from 8,838 cases in 2018 to 8,398 cases in 2019, an decrease of 440 cases.
• From 2018 to 2019 there was an decrease in reports of Salmonella Enteritidis from 2,589 to 2,514 and a decrease in reports of Salmonella Typhimurium from 1,913 to 1,568 reported cases.
• The region that reported the highest number of Salmonella laboratory reports was London with 1,667 reports.
• Laboratory reports per 100,000 population was 14.92 Read More

UK: H5N1- identified at a wildbird rescue centre in Worcestershire

26 October, 2021 The UK Chief Veterinary Officer has confirmed a case of avian influenza (H5N1) at a wildbird rescue centre in Worcestershire.
All birds on site will be humanely culled. A 3km and 10km temporary control zone has also been put in place around the infected premises to limit the risk of the disease spreading. Read More

Italy: H5N1 outbreak among turkeys

22 October, 2021 On 18 October 2021, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 in a fattening turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region). On 19 October, the virus was characterized as Highly Pathogenicity Avian Influenza subtype H5N1. At the time of confirmation, the farm housed about 13,000 birds. Considering the presence of a hunting area for waterfowls near the infected farm, indirect contact with the wild reservoir has been identified as the most likely source of virus introduction. Culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures are ongoing. Read More

Avian Influenza outbreak along the coast of the Western Cape

21 October, 2021 A serious outbreak of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is currently affecting endangered Cape cormorants along the coast of the Western Cape. In the worst-affected colonies, hundreds of birds have already died from the disease.
The H5N1 strain of HPAI virus was detected in wild birds in the Western Cape in May 2021, mainly affecting gulls. The first Cape cormorants were only diagnosed with this disease in mid-September and cases have increased very rapidly over the last week. The colonies that have been affected the worst are those on Dyer Island and near Velddrif. Read More

Prevalence of E. coli type 131 as a foodborne pathogen in Swiss chicken

21 October, 2021 Within recent years, the topic of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains, specifically Sequence Type 131 (ST 131) has seen a surge in occurrence as a foodborne pathogen. This has prompted the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office (FSVO) to investigate further into the problem.
The Zurich University of Applied Sciences was thus tasked with reviewing available literature and evaluating the risk that this newly emerging threat poses to the Swiss population. After reviewing literature and doing a risk evaluation, the result was, that mainly chicken and poultry products are affected. Based on these findings, the ZHAW was further tasked with doing a prevalence test on these products, in order to confirm what was speculated based on literature. Read More

USDA: New effort to reduce Salmonella illnesses linked to poultry

19 October, 2021 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) today announced that it is mobilizing a stronger, and more comprehensive effort to reduce Salmonella illnesses associated with poultry products. The agency is initiating several key activities to gather the data and information necessary to support future action and move closer to the national target of a 25% reduction in Salmonella illnesses.
Despite consistent reductions in the occurrence of Salmonella in poultry products, more than 1 million consumer illnesses due to Salmonella occur annually, and it is estimated that over 23% of those illnesses are due to consumption of chicken and turkey. Read More

Salmonella Infantis in Dutch broiler flocks - Study

Veterinary Microbiology 2021 Vol 258 18 October, 2021 Salmonella Infantis is a poultry-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar that is increasingly reported in broilers and is also regularly identified among human salmonellosis cases.
Since 2014, S. Infantis has been the most commonly isolated serovar in broilers in the Netherlands, accounting for 78% of all Salmonella isolates from broilers reported in 2018. Also Europe-wide, S. Infantis is currently the most common serovar in broilers (46–57%) and broiler meat (37–51%),and its prevalence has increased in breeding flocks as well.
An emerging S. Infantis mega-plasmid (pESI), carrying fitness, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, is also increasingly found. Dutch researchers investigated the prevalence, genetic characteristics and risk factors for (pESI-carrying) S. Infantis in broilers. The rapid spread of S. Infantis in broilers has been related to the occurrence of the pESI mega-plasmid carrying genes associated with fitness, virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Read More

IFSAC: the 2019 annual report on the sources of foodborne illnesses

16 October, 2021 Each year in the United States, an estimated 9 million people get sick, 56,000 are hospitalized and 1,300 die of foodborne disease caused by known pathogens. According to the report 29.7 % of outbreaks of salmonellosis are estimated to be linked to poultry (16.8% to chickens, 6.6% turkeys, 6.3% eggs).
Nearly two-thirds (64.7%) of non-Dairy campylobacter illnesses were attributed to Chicken, significantly higher than any other food category. The majority (36/64, 56%) of chicken-associated Campylobacter outbreaks were attributed to chicken liver products, which are not widely consumed in the United States. The attribution percentages before removing Dairy were Dairy 51.9%, Chicken 31.1%, Other Seafood 4.9%, Turkey 3.2% and Other Meat/Poultry 2.8%; they were less than 2% for other categories.
3.3% of Listeria outbreak cases were attributed to eggs. The Egg attribution comes from a multistate outbreak due to hard-boiled eggs detected in 2019, with cases during 2017-2019. Read More

UK: Retailer’s campylobacter test results (2Q)

15 October, 2021 The Food Standards Agency (FSA) has identified Campylobacter as a key priority and is working with those directly in the industry to tackle it. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) target level is of less than 7% of birds in the >1,000 cfu/g category.
The results for Q2 2021 (April to June) show that:
Aldi: 4.2% of birds were in the >1,000 cfu/g category.
Marks and Spencer: 5 percent were in the maximum category in April, 9 percent in May, and 9 percent in June (based on a 376 samples). Read More

Israel reports H5N1 on a turkey farm

13 October, 2021 An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza - H5N1 was detected on a turkey farm near Nahalal in northern Israel. 42,000 turkeys will be culled. A year ago, the same farm was affected by HPAI - H5N8. Read More

USA: Controlling salmonella top priority

6 October, 2021 Sandra Eskin, the Agriculture deputy undersecretary for food safety and the top food safety official at USDA, said today, that reducing infections from salmonella is her top priority.
In a virtual speech to the Consumer Federation National Food Policy Conference, Eskin said the incidence of illness from salmonella, which the Centers for Disease Control says causes about 1.35 million infections, 26,500 hospitalizations, and 420 deaths in the United States every year, has not decreased since 2000, and it is time to change policy.
Eskin said ”Eggs and poultry are the most common sources of salmonella". Read More

Klebsiella pneumoniae and poultry as reservoirs

Frontiers in Microbiology | September 2021 25 September, 2021 Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-studied human pathogen for which antimicrobial resistant and hypervirulent clones have emerged globally. K. pneumoniae is also present in a variety of environmental niches, but currently there is a lack of knowledge on the occurrence and characteristics of K. pneumoniae from non-human sources. Certain environmental niches, e.g., animals, may be associated with high K. pneumoniae abundance, and these can constitute a reservoir for further transmission of strains and genetic elements. Can poultry serve as a zoonotic reservoir? Read More

Decreased incidence of infections caused by foodborne pathogens during the COVID-19 pandemic

MMWR Weekly / September 24, 2021 / 70(38);1332–1336 24 September, 2021 The 26% decrease in incidence of infections caused by pathogens transmitted commonly through food during 2020 was the largest single-year variation in incidence during 25 years of FoodNet surveillance; widespread public health interventions implemented to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission might have contributed to this decrease.
During 2020, FoodNet identified 18,462 cases of infection, 4,788 hospitalizations, and 118 deaths. The overall incidence was highest for Campylobacter (14.4 per 100,000 population), followed by Salmonella (13.3). Read More

Salmonella in livestock production in Great Britain - 2020

23 September, 2021 This annual publication provides data on reports of salmonella in livestock species in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) which was collected and collated by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). Each year includes data from previous years for comparative purposes.
During 2020 there was a reduction in non-statutory surveillance and clinical diagnosis submissions in many species which was consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures. This should therefore be borne in mind when comparing2020 data with previous years.
Salmonella in humans: In 2020, a total of 5,263 isolations of Salmonella from humans were reported; this is 45% lower than in 2019 (9,588 isolations) and 48% lower than in 2018 (10,143 isolations). Read More

Germany: H5N8 in dead seals

20 September, 2021 Avian influenza virus has been detected in three dead seals found in the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea. First, several dead seals were examined at the Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover in Büsum, announced the Ministry of the Environment on Monday. The virus subtype H5N8 was detected in two animals. The Friedrich Loeffler Institute as the national reference laboratory has now confirmed the infection in three samples. According to initial investigations, there is a great similarity to the avian influenza viruses detected in wild birds in recent months. Read More

Introduction of infection routes for AI season 2020-2021 investigated

The Netherlands 17 September, 2021 Commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Utrecht University in collaboration with the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA), Sovon, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR), and Royal GD researched the introduction routes of the highly pathogenic bird flu in the 2020-2021 season. It reviewed the results from source and contact research, estimates of the introduction time, and virus similarities for the infected farms. Read More

Broad coalition calls for modernization of poultry food safety

7 September, 2021 A broad coalition of four major poultry producers, Consumer advocates, food poisoning survivors, and scientists jointly asked the Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack to meet with them to hash out a modernized, science-based approach to reducing salmonella and campylobacter illnesses in poultry production.
The letter sent to Vilsack reads, “While progress on reducing foodborne illness has been at a standstill, scientific knowledge of Salmonella has greatly increased and recognized best practices for Campylobacter and other pathogens has advanced. Science tells us that current performance standards do not effectively target the particular types of Salmonella and the levels of bacteria that pose the greatest risks of illness, and the overall regulatory framework does not adequately harness modern tools for preventing and verifying control of the bacteria that are making people sick.” Read More

An outbreak of HPAI H7N7 in Australia - 2020

Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1639 27 August, 2021 In 2020, several geographically isolated farms in Victoria, Australia, experienced an
outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H7N7 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses H5N2 and H7N6.
The Victorian outbreak also detected LPAI H7N6 in emus at a commercial farm. Novel influenza
A viruses can emerge by mixing different viral strains in a host susceptible to avian and human
influenza strains. Studies show that emus are susceptible to infections from a wide range of influenza viral subtypes, including H5N1 and the pandemic H1N1. The emu’s internal organs and tissues express abundant cell surface sialic acid receptors that favour the attachment of avian and human influenza viruses, increasing the potential for internal genetic reassortment and the emergence of novel influenza A viruses. Read More

Global spread of Salmonella Enteritidis

Nat Comm 2021, 12:5109 26 August, 2021 In the 1980s, simultaneous increase of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections linked to poultry occurred in North America, South America, and Europe. By the late 1980s and the 1990s, Salmonella Enteritidis had spread to the poultry production systems in Asia and Africa. The pandemic subsequently declined in the late 1990s in the US and the United Kingdom (UK), but Salmonella Enteritidis remains a substantial problem for poultry production and public health.
Between 2015 and 2018, Salmonella Enteritidis contaminated eggs caused the largest known salmonellosis outbreak in Europe, resulting 1,209 reported cases in 16 countries. Decades after the inception of the pandemic, how the pathogen simultaneously increased in many parts of the world remained “a central and unsolved mystery”. Read More

Immunity and protection provided by live vaccines against Salmonella in poultry

Av Dis 65:295–302, 2021 24 August, 2021 Vaccination of poultry against paratyphoid Salmonella is a frequent strategy used to reduce the levels of infection and transmission, which ultimately can lead to lower rates of human infections. Live vaccines have been developed and used in poultry immediately after hatching as a result of their ability to colonize the gut, stimulate a mucosal immune response, induce a competitive inhibitory effect against homologous wild strains, and reduce colonization and excretion of Salmonella. Furthermore, vaccines can competitively exclude some heterologous strains of Salmonella from colonizing the gastrointestinal tract when young poultry are immunologically immature. In addition, various studies have suggested that booster vaccination with live vaccines a few weeks after initial vaccination is essential to increase the level ofprotection and achieve better cross-protective immunity. Read More

Sweden: Increase cases of campylobacter

24 August, 2021 Since the end of July, the number of people infected with campylobacter has been high, with between 160 and 200 reported cases per week.
The increase has been seen throughout the country and in all age groups. The period has been preceded by an increased proportion of broiler flocks carried on campylobacter (Swedish Veterinary Institute (SVA). Read More

HPAI H5N8 and H5N1 outbreaks in GB: Nov. 2020 to Apr. 2021

DEFRA 18 August, 2021 The outbreak of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in Great Britain from November 2020 to March 2021 consisted of two types of virus, H5N8 (twenty infected premises) and H5N1 (two infected premises). Infection was disclosed across England, Scotland and Wales in commercial layer and broiler flocks, small-holder flocks, game flocks, captive bird collections and birds of prey – including a conservation centre and two animal rescue centres. There was no apparent spatial nor temporal clustering of infected premises.
Extensive epidemiological, tracings and genome sequencing investigations revealed no evidence of spread between any of the infected holdings, neither within the United Kingdom, nor to trading partners. The only spread between infected premises occurred on one large holding, where the three separate premises were located in close proximity and were operated as one business that shared staff and equipment across the sites. Read More

Serenade Foods recalls 60,000 pounds of stuffed chicken products

11 August, 2021 Serenade Foods is recalling almost 60,000 pounds of frozen, raw, breaded, and pre-browned stuffed chicken products that may be contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis.
FSIS has been working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and public health partners to investigate a multistate outbreak of 28 Salmonella Enteritidis illnesses in 8 states, with onset dates ranging from February 21 through June 28, 2021. Read More

Reduction in antimicrobial use in broilers, Canada, 2013-2019

Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol 27, Number 9 - September 2021 9 August, 2021 A recent study provides data on antimicrobial use and AMR of foodborne bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter) in broiler chickens during 2013 and 2019. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chickens declined by 6%–38% after the decrease in prophylactic antimicrobial use. However, the withdrawal of individual compounds, such as cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, prompted an increase in use of and resistance levels for other drug classes, such as aminoglycosides.
The study shows that the injection of antimicrobials in ovo or subcutaneously at hatcheries is significantly associated with resistance in foodborne bacteria on the farm. Read More

New Zealand: Further testing programme to protect consumers

1 August, 2021 New Zealand Food Safety (NZFS) is extending a programme of testing to determine the extent of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in poultry flocks in New Zealand and to reduce the risk to consumers.
NZFS has been carrying out tracing and testing of poultry operations after SE was found at an Auckland poultry farm. These efforts have focused on egg producers. As a result, restrictions have been placed on three North Island egg layer operations, preventing potentially infected eggs from reaching consumers. The country's food safety body has expanded its testing programme for salmonella to include another 25 operations - which account for 80 per cent of eggs sold to the public. Read More

Denmark: Salmonella targets and surveillance in the poultry production 2020

1 August, 2021 - Two breeding flocks were positive for target serovars in 2020 with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Thereby, 0.8% of the breeding flocks of G. gallus in Denmark were positive for target serovars (EU target for S. Typhimurium including the monophasic S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- variant, S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Infantis and S. Virchow is maximum 1%).
- No turkey flocks were positive with S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis in 2020 (EU target for Salmonella in breeding and fattening turkey flocks is 1% positive for S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis).
- In 2020 the prevalence for any Salmonella in laying flocks was 1.85%, as eight flocks (8/432) were found positive. Read More

Gross pathology associated with HPAI H5N8 and H5N1

Lean et al. (2021) Vet Rec. e731. 30 July, 2021 In a study published in Veterinary Record, researchers described the pathology among poultry species naturally infected with HPAIV between October 2020 and April 2021, that have occurred in the United Kingdom. On gross examination, pancreatic necrosis was easily identified and most commonly observed in galliformes infected with both subtypes of HPAIV (H5N8 and H5N1) but rarely in anseriformes. In addition, splenic necrosis was also frequently observed in chickens and turkeys infected with HPAIV H5N8. Other less common lesions included cardiac petechiae, serosal haemorrhages and ascites in a variety of species. Read More

FSA: Report into the sources of human Campylobacter infection published

27 July, 2021 The Food Standards Agency- UK, has published a study to further determine the principal sources of this foodborne disease. A report published by the FSA confirms that chickens are the source of the majority of human cases of Campylobacter, followed by other animals such as sheep, pigs and cows. This infection may have been passed to people directly through food, but could also be via environmental and water contamination.
The Campylobacter Source Attribution Study, launched in 2015 as part of the FSA’s wider and ongoing Campylobacter Reduction Programme, also reveals an increase in antimicrobial resistance within Campylobacter strains between 1997 and 2018. Around 300,000 human cases of Campylobacter are estimated to be acquired from food each year in the UK, out of a total of around 630,000 cases. Read More

Salmonella reports fall in Austria

17 July, 2021 In 2020, the number of primary human isolates sent to the National Reference Center for Salmonella (NRZS) decreased by 51.6% as compared to 2019. In 2020, 906 human salmonella isolates were recorded by the NRZS.
An annual incidence of 10.2 / 100,000 inhabitants.
Salmonella enteritidis was the most frequent serovar (43.4%) with 393 human isolates. S. typhimurium (including the monophasic variant) was the second most common serotype 166 cases (18.3%). Read More

Epidemiological situation of Campylobacter & Salmonella in Australia, 2016

17 July, 2021 Record levels of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been recorded in Australia, according to the annual surveillance report of notifiable diseases for 2016. Campylobacteriosis was the most frequently notified enteric infection in Australia in 2016. There were 24,164 notified cases of campylobacteriosis in 2016, making it the most frequently notified enteric infection (146.9 per 100,000 population). There has been a 7% increase onthe number of notifications received for 2015 (n= 22,549) and an increase of 33% on the previous five-year historical mean, 2011 to 2015 (n = 18,122). This rise may be associated with the increased use of culture independent diagnostic testing. Read More

Salmonella in Canada

Canada Communicable Disease Report (CCDR) 16 July, 2021 A new study shows that of the 96,082 Salmonella cases reported to the National Enteric Surveillance Program (NESP) in Canada during the 14-year study period,4.4% were bacteremic. Patients with bacteremia are more likely to experience severe outcomes, including hospitalization and death, unless treated promptly with antibiotics. 19 nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were identified as having higher rates of bacteremia. Of the 570 NTS serovars reported to the NESP from 2006 to2019, 136 were associated with bacteremia. Read More

FSIS: revised guidelines for controlling Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry

13 July, 2021 The Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) announced the availability of revised guidelines to assist poultry establishments in controlling Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry. The Agency has revised the content of the guidelines in light of new scientific and technical information, public comments received on the 2015 guideline, and the agency’s decision to issue two separate guidelines - one on controlling Salmonella and the other on controlling Campylobacter. Read More

Salmonellosis in Sweden

5 July, 2021 Salmonella was not detected in any of the 4147 broiler flocks tested in routine sampling before slaughter. Salmonella was detected in 7 of the 646 flocks of layers tested. Salmonella was not detected in any breeding flocks, neither in any samples of commercially raised turkey flocks, quails, or ostriches. Salmonella was detected in one small-scale flock with laying hens, ducks and geese. It is estimated that approximately 20% of the poultry holdings lackan annual official sampling.Humans: In 2020, a total of 826 cases of salmonellosis were reported, compared to 1993 cases in 2019. Read More

Campylobacter in Sweden

5 July, 2021 Since 1997, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis in Sweden has varied between 65 and 110 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. Most cases are infected abroad, but in 2014–2018 the proportion of domestic infections increased due to several major outbreaks caused by domestically produced chicken meat. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in both a record low incidence of Campylobacteriosis and a record high proportion of domestic infections in relation to infections retrieved abroad in 2020.
The strong association between the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and infections among humans makes monitoring in broiler flocks an important tool for early warning. The Swedish Poultry Meat Association has operated a monitoring programme for broiler chicken since 1991. The goal is to achieve an overall annual Campylobacter prevalence of less than 10% in slaughter batches of chicken. Read More

CDC: Listeria outbreak linked to precooked chicken

3 July, 2021 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with public health and regulatory officials in several states, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) are investigating an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections that has sickened three people in two states (Texas and Delaware).
Epidemiologic and laboratory data show that some precooked chicken products may be contaminated with Listeria and may be making people sick. Read More

Campylobacter contamination in fresh whole UK produced chilled chickens at retail sale

19 June, 2021 Research published by the FSA has found the percentage of chicken sold at smaller retailers contaminated at more than 1,000 CFU/g is still higher than samples from supermarkets. The UK-wide survey looked at the levels of Campylobacter on whole fresh retail chickens on sale in farm shops and markets, butchers and smaller chains such as Iceland, McColl’s, Budgens, Nisa, Costcutter, and One Stop. A total of 1,009 fresh raw chickens were collected from August 2018 to July 2019.Campylobacter spp. were detected in 55.8% of the chicken skin samples obtained from non-major retailer shops, and 10.8% of the samples had counts above 1000 cfu per g chicken skin. Read More

UK: Major retailers publish campylobacter results - Q1

19 June, 2021 The top nine retailers across the UK have published their latest testing results on campylobacter contamination in UK-produced fresh whole chickens (covering samples tested from January to March 2021). The Food Standards Agency (FSA) maximum acceptable level is 7 percent of birds with more than 1,000 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of Campylobacter.
The latest results, which cover January to March this year (Q1 of 2021), show that all nine supermarkets have achieved levels below this amount of heavy contamination. Similarly, the majority have recorded contamination levels that are lower than they did between October and December last year (Q4 of 2020). Read More

Eurosurveillance: data on H5N8 isolated from a Russian poultry worker

Eurosurveillance: Vol 26, Issue 24, 17/Jun/2021 19 June, 2021 In December 2020, the RNA of avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs taken from seven poultry workers during an outbreak at a large poultry farm in the Astrakhan region on the Volga River in southern Russia. An influenza A(H5N8) virus isolate was obtained from one human clinical specimen.
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred at the Vladimirovskaya poultry farm located in Astrakhan region, Russia. The total flock size at the poultry farm was 924,612 chickens of all ages. On 3 December 2020, the first 750 chickens died and additional mortality was later observed at the site. All birds had the same symptoms (diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, haemorrhagic lesions of the respiratory and digestive tract). The Astrakhan Veterinary Laboratory preliminarily detected influenza A(H5) viral RNA in poultry tissue samples (lung, trachea, intestine, spleen) from a subset of 18 dead birds on 7 December 2020. Read More

Northern Ireland: severe ILT outbreak

14 June, 2021 An outbreak of infectious Laryngotracheitis in Northern Ireland is said to have infected 250,000 birds.
There have been eighteen cases of ILT reported by Private Veterinary Practitioners (PVP) in Northern Ireland since 4 May to date. Read More

USA: Increased incidence of AMR nontyphoidal salmonella infections, 2004–2016

Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol 27, Number 6 - June 2021 13 June, 2021 The annual incidence of resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections was 40% higher in 2015 and 2016 compared with the years 2004 to 2008, according to a study published in Emerging Infectious Diseases. Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and antimicrobial-resistant strains pose a serious threat to public health. From 2004-2008 to 2015-2016, there was an estimated 40% increase in the annual incidence of Salmonella infections with clinically important resistance to any of three antimicrobial drugs recommended to treat severe infections. Read More

Avian influenza overview February – May 2021

9 June, 2021 A Scientific report from European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), published on May 31, 2021, describes the February-May 2021 European High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) season as “one of the largest and most devastating HPAI epidemics ever occurred in Europe.” The 2020-2021 HPAI epidemic counts 3,555 detected infections in 27 European countries (22 EU MS, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United Kingdom), involving 22.4 million poultry birds. The epicenter of the HPAI epidemic appears to have been in Germany and Poland, with the former country detecting the largest number of infections in wild birds (603) and the latter the largest number of outbreaks in farm flocks (297). During this period, sixteen different HPAI genotypes were found, indicating a high level of virus reassortment. Read More

CDC alerts salmonella outbreak from breaded, stuffed chicken

4 June, 2021 Federal health officials are investigating a multistate salmonella outbreak tied to raw frozen breaded stuffed chicken.
As of June 2, 2021, a total of 17 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis have been reported from 6 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from February 21, 2021 to May 7, 2021.
Sick people range in age from 3 to 83 years, with a median age of 52 years, and 60% are female. Of 13 people with information available, 8 (62%) have been hospitalized; no deaths have been reported.
Six states have reported illnesses in connection with the outbreak, including Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Michigan, New York and Arizona. Read More

First human case of H10N3 avian influenza

1 June, 2021 China's National Health Commission informed that the first case of human infection with the H10N3 strain of avian influenza from the country's eastern Jiangsu province has been reported. The patient, a 41-year-old man from Zhenjiang city, is currently in a stable condition and meets discharge standards. The man is from the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province on China's east-central coast. His symptoms—nausea and fever—began on Apr 23. He was admitted to an intensive care unit on Apr 28, and he is currently listed in stable condition.
An investigation found no clear history of exposure to poultry, and no H10N3 had been detected in local poultry. No related infections were found in any of the man's contacts. Genetic analysis found that the virus is avian in origin. Read More

The Netherlands: WBVR tests foxes positive for avian influenza (H5N1)

29 May, 2021 Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) has diagnosed bird flu in two foxes from the province of Groningen in the Netherlands and characterized the viruses as H5N1. The sequences of the avian influenza viruses in the foxes are similar to those identified in infected wild birds from the same region. It is therefore likely that the foxes became infected from eating a bird infected with avian influenza. Avian influenza virus infections in foxes have been previously observed in other parts of the world and recently in England. Read More

USDA recalls 65 tons of frozen chicken

29 May, 2021 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has issued a public health alert for approximately 65 tons (130,860 pounds) of frozen fully cooked, diced chicken products because they may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.
The problem was discovered during routine FSIS inspection activities when inspection personnel observed products requiring recooking due to possible L. monocytogenes contamination had been repackaged without being recooked. A subsequent FSIS investigation determined other affected product had been further distributed in commerce. There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products. Read More

Overview of Dutch farms with avian influenza 2020/2021

28 May, 2021 Below is an overview of previous avian influenza infections on commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands in 2020/2021. Read More

New Zealand: salmonella enteritidis at a poultry farm.

28 May, 2021 New Zealand Food Safety has taken precautionary action following the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis at an Auckland poultry farm. There had been an increase in human cases caused by the same strain of salmonella found in MPI's investigation, which was being tracked with the Ministry of Health.
A New Zealand Food Safety audit and follow-up testing has found the bacterium at an Auckland supplier of hatching eggs and day-old chicks to industry. Read More

CDC: Salmonella outbreaks linked to backyard poultry

22 May, 2021 CDC and public health officials in many states are collecting different types of data to investigate multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections with serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, and Infantis.
Epidemiologic and laboratory data show that contact with backyard poultry is making people sick.
As of May 20, 2021, a total of 163 people infected with one of the outbreak strains have been reported from 43 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from February 12, 2021, to April 25, 2021.
Sick people range in age from less than 1 to 87 years, with a median age of 24 years, and 58% are female. Of 109 people with information available, 34 (31%) have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Read More

Avian influenza in Tibet, South Africa & Romania

22 May, 2021 China has reported an outbreak of H5N8 avian influenza in Nagqu City, southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region. The highly pathogenic disease has been detected among wild birds in two areas of Nagqu, including a national wetland park. So far, 268 wild birds have been infected and killed.
South Africa: Approximately 134,000 chickens have died or been culled in the Western Cape as a result of a avian influenza outbreak affecting the province. Avian influenza (H5N1), has been detected at four poultry farms in the Western Cape so far. The infected farms are situated near Worcester, Malmesbury, and Hopefield. An avian influenza outbreak was first detected in Gauteng last month where at least two farms in the East Rand have been affected. Read More

Salmonella Infantis in Dutch broiler flocks

Veterinary Microbiology 258 (2021) 22 May, 2021 Since 2014, S. Infantis has been the most commonly isolated serovar in broilers in the Netherlands, accounting for 78% of all Salmonella isolates from broilers reported in 2018. Also Europe-wide, S. Infantis is currently the most common serovar in broilers (46–57 %) and broiler meat (37–51 %),and its prevalence has increased in breeding flocks as well. Moreover, S. Infantis ranked fourth among the serovars isolated from human salmonellosis cases in the Netherlands and in Europe in the past few years, after S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant. In 2014, a multi-drug resistant S. Infantis strain was identified in Israel carrying a mega-plasmid of approximately 300 Kb named pESI (plasmid of emerging S. Infantis). Read More

Organic meat less likely to be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria

14 May, 2021 Meat that is certified organic by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is less likely to be contaminated with bacteria that can sicken people, including dangerous, multidrug-resistant organisms, compared to conventionally produced meat, according to a study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The researchers found that, compared to conventionally processed meats, organic-certified meats were 56% less likely to be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The study was based on nationwide testing of meats from 2012 to 2017 as part of the U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). A longstanding concern about antibiotic use in livestock and livestock feed is the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Read More

CDC: Increased incidence of resistant Salmonella infections

Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol 27, Number 6 June 2021 13 May, 2021 In a study published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, the researchers estimated a 40% increase in the annual incidence of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections with clinically important resistance in 2015-2016 compared with 2004-2008. When extrapolated to the entire US population, that amounts to roughly 63,000 more infections a year caused by antibiotic-resistant Salmonella.
During 2015–2016, the mean annual incidence was 2.38 (95% CrI 1.93–2.86)/100,000 persons for clinically important resistant infections and 1.83 (95% CrI 1.45–2.25)/100,000 persons for MDR infections. Read More

Japan: avian influenza has almost ended

10 May, 2021 The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan has almost ended after having swept across the country from last November.
This season, avian influenza was discovered in 18 prefectures, including Chiba and Ibaraki, which are known for poultry farming.
The number of chickens and ducks that were culled this season in order to prevent the further spread of infections stood at around 9.87 million, up drastically from the previous record high of some 1.83 million such birds put down between the autumn of 2010 and the spring the following year. Read More

Salmonella Bareilly and egg powder

Eurosurveillance Volume 26, Issue 14, 08/Apr/2021 1 May, 2021 In August 2017, the number of human S. Bareilly cases reported in the Czech Republic exceeded the maximal annual total number of cases from the previous 5 years (n = 25). The State Veterinary Administration (SVA) identified a Salmonella Bareilly isolate closely related to human outbreak isolates in a powdered egg product called dried egg melange. This led to the agency investigating the company making the powdered egg and inspections at farms that produced eggs for further processing. The first confirmed Salmonella Bareilly patient had disease onset in July 2017. The number of infections peaked in October 2017, and the last confirmed patient was reported in October 2018. In total, 250 probable cases were identified in the Czech Republic and 75 in Slovakia. Two small peaks were observed in Slovakia in October 2017 and April 2018. Read More

Polish-British discussions on food safety

30 April, 2021 Poland's minister for agriculture, Grzegorz Puda, has held virtual talks with George Eustice (Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - UK) to discuss the safety of Polish poultrymeat following salmonella outbreaks linked back to the country.
The UK is the second-largest trading partner for Polish agri-foods and a significant destination for poultrymeat. The Food Standards Agency is investigating the Polish poultry supply chain after several cases of salmonellosis were linked back to frozen breaded chicken products using chicken from the country. Read More

EU: Antimicrobial Resistance in zoonotic bacteria 2018-19

20 April, 2021 Data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food are collected annually by the EU Member States (MSs), jointly analysed by the EFSA and the ECDC and reported in a yearly EU Summary Report.
A sizeable proportion of Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria is still resistant to antibiotics commonly used in humans and animals, as in previous years, says a report released by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In humans, high proportions of resistance to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat several types of infections, were reported in a specific Salmonella type known as S. Kentucky (82.1%). In recent years, S. Enteritidis resistant to nalidixic acid and/or ciprofloxacin has been increasingly reported in several countries. Read More

Ireland: use of unauthorised antibiotics in poultry flocks

17 April, 2021 More than 60,000 chickens have been destroyed at an Irish meat processor after tests identified the birds may have been reared using unauthorised antibiotic growth promoters.
Carton Bros, Ireland’s largest poultry processor, have said routine tests raised the possible use of unauthorised antibiotics. As a result, 60,000 birds were rendered, with tens of thousands more placed in cold storage until testing was completed over fears too that they were not fit for human consumption. Read More

South Africa: Newcastle disease in wild birds

14 April, 2021 Birds found dead, mostly doves, in parts of the Eastern Cape have died of Avian Paramyxovirus and Newcastle diseases. The Eastern Cape department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform confirmed the test results on Tuesday (13/4).
Hundreds of bird deaths have been reported in the Buffalo City Municipality since March, which prompted Neville’s Snake and Reptile Rescue to collect dead birds for testing at the SPCA. Wild birds found mysteriously dying in Gqeberha were also handed to state veterinarians for testing.
Testing and investigation included tracing of birds, collecting and conducting post mortems to identify the cause of bird deaths. Samples collected were sent to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research (OVR) Laboratory for analysis. Read More

FSIS: Raw ground turkey products linked to Salmonella Illness

11 April, 2021 FSIS and its public health partners, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), public health and regulatory officials are investigating a multistate outbreak of 28 Salmonella Hadar illnesses in 12 states with onset dates ranging from December 28, 2020 through March 4, 2021. The traceback investigation for one case patient identified the patient consumed ground turkey produced by Plainville Brands, LLC. An intact, unopened package of Plainville Brands’ ground turkey collected from this case-patient’s home tested positive for Salmonella Hadar and was closely related genetically to the sample from the patient. Evidence collected to date does not link all illnesses to this establishment. Read More

Asda is recalling its Asda 2 Original Chicken Chargrills

7 April, 2021 Supermarket giants Asda has recalled its own brand 2 Original Chicken Chargrills over fears it may contain salmonella. Read More

Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in poultry in Canada, 2013-2018

30 March, 2021 A recent study used data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) to compare the prevalence of Salmonella serovars between broiler chicken and turkey flocks across Canada, and to gain an understanding of the prevalence of resistance to antimicrobials categorized as important to human health. There were 1,596 Salmonella isolates obtained from 514 broiler chicken flocks, and 659 Salmonella isolates obtained from 217 turkey flocks (2013-2018). All isolates were obtained from pooled faecal samples. Among broiler chicken flocks, the top three serovars were Kentucky (n = 573, 36%), Enteritidis (n = 314, 20%) and Heidelberg (n = 127, 8%). Resistance to ceftriaxone among Salmonella ser. Kentucky decreased from 27% in 2013 to 22% in 2018. There was no resistance among Salmonella ser. Enteritidis reported until 2018 when one isolate from British Columbia was resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphisoxazole and tetracycline. Salm Read More

LPAI Detected in San Francisco County LBM

Source: EGG‑NEWS.com 30 March, 2021 Surveillance detected an avian influenza H5 strain characterized as low pathogenic in a live bird market (LBM) in San Francisco County on March 24th.
The isolation has been reported to the OIE in accordance with International obligations, resulting in possible regional exclusions of exports from San Francisco County. Read More

UK: two outbreaks of avian influenza

30 March, 2021 Two new cases of avian influenza have been confirmed in commercial poultry flocks, as Housing Order set to end.
On Saturday (27 March), the HPAI H5N8 strain was confirmed in broiler chickens at a premises near Uttoxeter, Staffordshire. On Friday (26 March), the LPAI H5N3 strain of avian influenza was confirmed in turkey breeders in Tarporley near Winsford, Cheshire West and Chester. There are about 4,500 birds housed at the facility. Read More

Canada: Outbreak of Salmonella infections linked to eggs - Update

19 March, 2021 As of March 18, 2021, there have been 64 laboratory-confirmed cases of Salmonella Enteritidis illness investigated in the following provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador (26), and Nova Scotia (38). Individuals became sick between late October 2020 and mid February 2021. Nineteen individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 2 and 98 years of age. The majority of cases (70%) are female. Read More

UK: Avian influenza H5N8 strain detected in seals and fox

18 March, 2021 Carcasses of four common seals, one grey seal and one red fox submitted to APHA laboratory during December 2020 for diagnostic PME as part of routine wildlife disease surveillance activities. Two of the Common Seal carcasses were autolysed so were safely disposed of without PME. Following histopathological examination of tissues from the fox and seals identified lesions indicative of acute systemic viral infection further laboratory testing was performed at APHA. This testing resulted in the detection of H5N8 influenza virus infection. Gene Sequencing identified this H5N8 influenza virus to be [99.9%] identical to avian-origin H5N8 viruses detected from the Mute swans that had died and been tested from this wildlife rescue centre. In November 2020, five wild Mute swans (Cygnus olor) that had been rescued and taken to a wildlife rescue centre died, were tested and found to be infected with H5N8 HPAI. Read More

FSA: Two ongoing Salmonella outbreaks linked to frozen breaded chicken products

17 March, 2021 The FSA is reiterating its advice on cooking frozen raw breaded chicken products following links to cases of Salmonella.
SFC has issued an updated recall of chicken products because Salmonella Enteritidis has been found in some of these foods.
The products are linked to two ongoing outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis (two particular strains) in chicken from Poland.
The two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in frozen, raw, breaded chicken products from Poland have caused almost 500 illnesses since January and at least one death. Read More

Potential interplay of resistance genes between enteric bacteria

Szmolka et al (2021) Front Microbiol 17 March, 2021 Commensal and pathogenic strains of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and non-typhoid strains of Salmonella represent a growing foodborne threat from foods of poultry origin. MDR strains of Salmonella Infantis and E. coli are frequently isolated from broiler chicks and the simultaneous presence of these two enteric bacterial species would potentially allow the exchange of mobile resistance determinants.
A recent study in Front Microbiol found that commensal E. coli could be potential reservoirs of resistance for S. Infantis. Read More

Singapore recalls eggs from Malaysian farm due to Salmonella

13 March, 2021 The Singapore Food Agency (SFA) has directed several importers to recall eggs from Lay Hong Berhad Layer Farm Jeram in Malaysia, after detecting the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the eggs. Read More

Salmonella in space

npj Microgravity - 09 March 2021 13 March, 2021 New study from space station looks at human cells infected with Salmonella typhimurium. The cells were compared with cells infected on the ground on Earth to see what changes may occur in space. Spaceflight uniquely alters the physiology of both human cells and microbial pathogens, stimulating cellular and molecular changes directly relevant to infectious disease.
The scientists found evidence that changes in the cells brought on by a microgravity environment may lead to salmonella being more virulent in space. Read More

Campylobacter contamination of UK-produced Halal chicken at retail

J Food Prot . 2021 6 March, 2021 A new study demonstrates that Halal chicken has a higher Campylobacter prevalence than non-Halal chicken. This project aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat produced for the UK Halal market. Campylobacter was identified and enumerated from the neck skin and outer packaging of 405 Halal chickens. Campylobacter spp. were confirmed in 65.4% of neck skin samples and 17.1% of packaging samples. Read More

Avian influenza in Europe - overview

ECDC 27 February, 2021 From 26 November 2020 to 11 February 2021, a total of 566 HPAI outbreaks in poultry were notified in 18 countries in the Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS): 439 in France, 45 in Germany, 39 in Poland, 12 in the United Kingdom , 12 in Ukraine, six in Hungary, four in the Netherlands, four in Czechia, four in Bulgaria, three in Sweden, two in Northern Ireland , and one in Italy, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Romania, and Slovakia. During this time, a total of 8,059,478 birds were affected. Two of the outbreaks (one in the Netherlands and one in the United Kingdom) were reported to be A(H5N1) subtype, and two were A(H5N5) (one in Sweden and one in Slovakia) subtype. All the other outbreaks were reported to be A(H5N8) subtype. Read More

EFSA: Salmonellosis in The EU - 2019

27 February, 2021 Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection in humans after campylobacteriosis, and an important cause of food-borne outbreaks in the EU/EEA.
In 2019, 87,923 confirmed cases of salmonellosis in humans were reported with an EU notification rate of 20.0 cases per 100,000 population, which was at the same level as in 2018.
In total, 15 MS provided information on hospitalisation. The proportion of confirmed cases with known hospitalisation information was 44.5% at the EU level. Among these, the proportion of hospitalised cases was 42.5%, which was about at the same level as in 2018. Overall, 17 MS provided data on the outcome of salmonellosis and, among these, 11 MS reported 140 fatal cases resulting in an EU case fatality of 0.22%. Here, 46 fatal cases (32.9%) were reported by the United Kingdom. Read More

EFSA: Foodborne outbreaks in Europe

27 February, 2021 During 2019, 27 Member States reported 5,175 food-borne outbreaks involving 49,463 cases of illness, 3,859 hospitalisations and 60 deaths. In addition, 117 outbreaks, 3,760 cases of illness and 158 hospitalisations were communicated by six non-MS.
The health impact of food-borne outbreaks in the EU was important in 2019 since 60 outbreak related deaths were reported; 20 more fatal cases than in 2018 (+50%). A high number of deaths (N = 10) were registered in community settings such as ‘residential institution (nursing home or prison or boarding school)’. In addition, nearly 19% of cases involved in strong-evidence outbreaks (2,407 cases) were exposed to contaminated foods in schools or kindergartens. These findings highlighted the need for attention to the high risk of vulnerable populations to food-borne hazards. Read More

EFSA: Campylobacteriosis in The EU - 2019

26 February, 2021 The first and second most reported zoonoses in humans were campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, respectively. The EU trend for confirmed human cases of these two diseases was stable (flat) during 2015–2019.
Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection in humans in the
EU and has been so since 2005.
• In 2019, the number of confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis was 220,682
corresponding to an EU notification rate of 59.7 per 100,000 population, which is a decrease
by 6.9% compared with the rate in 2018 (64.1 per 100,000 population).
• The trend for campylobacteriosis in humans remained stable (flat) during 2015–2019.
• Most cases (94.4%) with known origin of infection had acquired the infection in the EU.
• In 2019, Campylobacter was the third most frequently reported causative agent of food-borne
outbreaks at EU level, by 18 MS, with 319 outbreaks reported to EFSA, involving 1,254 cases
of illness, 125 hospitalisations and no deaths. Eig Read More

Multi-country outbreak of S. Enteritidis infections linked to poultry products in the EU/EEA and the UK

Source: ECDC 26 February, 2021 Between May 2018 and December 2020, 193 human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis sequence type (ST)11 were reported in Denmark (2), Finland (4), France (33), Germany (6), Ireland (12), the Netherlands (3),Poland (5), Sweden (6), and the United Kingdom (UK) (122). One in five cases (19.7%) has been hospitalised and France has reported one death (an 86-year-old female). Fifty percent of the cases were children ≤ 18 years. The most recent case was reported by the UK in December 2020.
Epidemiological studies in the UK have identified an increased risk of S. Enteritidis infection associated with the consumption of frozen breaded chicken products. Five batches of non-ready-to-eat poultry products (e.g. breaded products) tested positive for S. Enteritidis matching the outbreak strain. Three of these were manufactured by the Polish Processing Company B where S. Enteritidis was not detected. The five positive batches were traced back to different meat suppliers, slaughterhouses, and/or farms in P Read More

Outbreaks of foodborne Salmonella Enteritidis in The United States 1990-2015

International Journal of Infectious Diseases - 2021 25 February, 2021 A new study analyzed the data of all Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1990 to 2015.
In the USA, from 1990-2015, there were 1144 single-state SE outbreaks reported to CDC. Of 1144 SE outbreaks, 657 (57%) were reported with known food items, and 487 (43%) were unknown source-based outbreaks. Of 657 known food source outbreaks, 273 (24%) were associated with egg-based products and ranked as the leading cause of SE outbreaks cumulatively from 1990 to 2015. Meat products were the next most common cause of SE outbreaks (130, 11%) followed by vegetables (96, 8%), chicken (95, 8%), dairy products (55, 5%), and bakery items (8, 1%). the highest number of outbreaks were reported in 1990 (88, 8%) followed by 1991 (74, 7%) and 1993 (69, 6%). Read More

ECDC: Threat Assessment on first identification of human cases of H5N8

Source: ECDC 24 February, 2021 On 20 February 2021, Russian authorities reported the detection of influenza A(H5N8) virus infection in seven poultry workers in an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus on a poultry farm in the south of Russia. All seven human cases were reported to be mild or asymptomatic. HPAI A(H5N8) viruses have been circulating in European bird populations since 2014, causing large outbreaks and affected several million of birds and poultry. More than 10,000 exposure events of people have been estimated between 2016 and 2018. Since October 2020, around 1,700 outbreaks in poultry holdings and wild bird findings due to A(H5N8) and other reassorted A(H5Nx) viruses have been reported to the animal disease notification system (ADNS) from the European Union (EU), the European Economic Area (EEA) and neighbouring countries. Read More

Recall of fried chicken due to salmonella risk

22 February, 2021 The Food Standards Agency (FSA) along with Food Standards Scotland (FSS) and Public Health England (PHE), Public Health Scotland and Public Health Wales issued two product recalls of products linked to two ongoing outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis. An investigation is ongoing into two particular strains of Salmonella linked to frozen raw breaded chicken products.
It has confirmed that the salmonella originated in Poland and it is trying to identify the Polish farm or farms involved.
From January 2020, there have been 480 patients confirmed with salmonellosis caused by two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and linked to consumption of frozen, raw, breaded chicken products. The Food Standards Agency have issued a warning over both SFC’s Chicken Poppets and Take Home Boneless Bucket sold at B&M, Tesco, Sainsbury’s and Morrisons. Read More

Russia: first report on H5N8 in humans

20 February, 2021 H5N8 has never been known to infect humans. Now, Russian officials are reporting human infections with the A(H5N8) avian influenza virus. Seven people at a poultry farm in southern Russia have been infected with H5N8 avian influenza, making it the first time that the highly pathogenic virus has been found in humans. Read More

Canada: Egg consumption is the likely culprit of salmonella outbreak

19 February, 2021 The Public Health Agency of Canada is investigating an outbreak of salmonella infections in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. Fifty-seven sick people infected with Salmonella enteritidis. Based on the investigation findings to date, exposure to eggs has been identified as a likely source of the outbreak. Individuals became sick between late October 2020 and late January 2021. Nineteen people have been hospitalized. Individuals who became ill are between 2 and 98 years of age. The majority of cases (68%) are female. No deaths have been reported. Read More

Campylobacter bacteria can exchange genetic material

Plos One, Feb. 11, 2021 19 February, 2021 Campylobacter is the worldwide leading cause for foodborne illness and it persists throughout poultry production, from farm to grocery shelves. According to new research, two of the most common strains are exchanging genetic material.
Campylobacter bacteria spread primarily through consumption of contaminated food products. There are two strains of Campylobacter that we’re concerned with:
C. coli and C. jejuni.
C. jejuni causes up to 90% of human Campylobacter infections, but this strain is less likely to carry multidrug-resistant genes. C. coli is twice as likely to contain multidrug-resistant genes, but it’s a less effective human pathogen. Read More

S. Korea to temporarily ease AI-related culling rules

18 February, 2021 South Korea plans to temporarily ease precautionary measures against avian influenza as the spread of HPAI has slowed. The country has so far culled 26 million poultry under its policy of destroying all birds within a 3-km radius of infected farms. South Korea plans to destroy the same kind of poultry within a 1-kilometer radius of infected farms for the next two weeks, when avian influenza cases are reported. Local farmers have complained about authorities' policy of culling all birds, claiming that the excessive measures led to a hike in prices of poultry goods, which only ended up benefiting importers. Read More

Annual report concerning Foodborne Diseases in New Zealand 2019

3 February, 2021 The annual report concerning Foodborne Diseases provides annual data on foodborne trends in New Zealand.
Campylobacteriosis: During 2019, 6202 cases (126.1 per 100,000 population) of campylobacteriosis and no resulting deaths were reported. Approximately 9% of cases were recorded as hospitalised in 2019. Of the 702 hospital admissions (14.3 admissions per 100,000 population) recorded in 2019, 582 cases were reported with campylobacteriosis as the primary diagnosis and 120 were reported with campylobacteriosis as another relevant diagnosis.
It has been estimated by expert consultation that 63.8% of campylobacteriosis incidence is due to foodborne transmission. It was further estimated that 75.4% of foodborne transmission would be due to transmission via poultry. Read More

UK: Salmonella fears cause recall on chicken products

2 February, 2021 Lidl is recalling Red Hen Breaded Chicken Nuggets and Red Hen Southern Fried Chicken Pops because of salmonella contamination.
Aldi is recalling frozen packs of both Roosters Southern Fried Poppin' Chicken and Roosters Breaded Poppin' Chicken because the products may contain salmonella. Read More

USDA urged to better protect consumers from Salmonella, Campylobacter in poultry

27 January, 2021 A petition filed by several consumer groups and affected individuals has called on the US Department of Agriculture to better regulate US slaughterhouses to help reduce cases of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the US.
Food safety advocates are calling on the United States Department of Agriculture to better protect consumers with new enforceable standards that will reduce, with an aim to ultimately eliminate, Salmonella types of greatest public health concern while continuing to target reductions in Salmonella and Campylobacter overall. Read More

Sweden to cull 1.3M chicken after avian influenza hits farm

26 January, 2021 An outbreak of avian influenza has hit the southern municipality of Monsteras in Sweden's Kalmar County, and 1.3 million laying hens will now have to be culled and destroyed.
An extensive spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 and H5N5 has been found on a farm in the municipality. A large flock of laying hens has been affected and the infection has spread further in the facility, which now leads to 1.3 million poultry having to be killed and destroyed. Read More

S. Korea culled nearly 19M birds over avian influenza

19 January, 2021 A total of 18.8 million birds have been culled at farms across South Korea as part of measures to curb the spread of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza. South Korea reported the first case of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza at a duck farm in the North Jeolla province in late November. Read More

Japan: 5.8M birds have been culled due to avian influenza

18 January, 2021 Since last November, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 has been detected on 36 poultry farms in 15 prefectures, moving from western Japan, including Kagawa and Miyazaki prefectures, to central and eastern Japan, including Gifu and Chiba prefectures. Read More

Finland: egg recall due to Salmonella

17 January, 2021 Three Finnish firms have recalled eggs because they might be contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis, according to the Finnish Food Authority. Eggs branded as Kieku, Kesko's Pirkka brand and Kotimaista by S-Grouphave been pulled from shelves.
Packs of ten free range Kotimaista eggs are part of the recall, as are ten-egg and six-egg packs of free range Pirkka eggs.
Kieku has also added its Kieku-branded four-egg packs to the recall. Read More

Presence of Salmonella in chicken meat from conventional and without antibiotic-related claims

International Journal of Food Microbiology 2021 16 January, 2021 Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-typhoidal Salmonella from poultry is a public health concern. Injudicious use of antibiotics in humans and agriculture fuels the emergence of resistance. The objective of a new study was to characterize the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and genetic resistance mechanisms of Salmonella isolated from US retail poultry meat samples with and without antibiotic-related claims. The study reviewed data from 46,937 poultry meat samples collected from 2008 to 2017 through the FDA NARMS retail meat program. Antibiotic usage claims on the poultry packaging were used to categorize the sample as 'conventionally raised' or 'reduced or no antibiotic use'. The results show that the prevalence of Salmonella in conventional poultry samples (8.6%) was higher than reduced or no antibiotic use poultry samples (5.1%). The odds of MDR≥3 were 2.61 times higher for Salmonella isolates from conventional samples, compared to isolates from redu Read More

Germany: avian influenza outbreaks

14 January, 2021 An overview of avian influenza HPAI-H5N8 outbreaks on commercial poultry farms in Germany. Read More

Hungary: avian influenza

14 January, 2021 Hungary’s food safety authority NEBIH ordered the slaughter of 101,000 chicken layers due to avian influenza.
In the affected holding, at Kerekegyháza, Bacs-Kiskun, 101,185 laying hens have been kept in four pens. In one of these pens, where 28,800 laying hens were kept, a drop in egg production and soft-shell eggs have been observed. No other symptoms and no increased mortality have been registered. Read More

UK: Avian influenza list of outbreaks

9 January, 2021 An overview of avian influenza outbreaks on commercial poultry farms in UK. Read More

TVP caused by CPNV displaying serological cross-reactivity with IBDV

Animals 2021, 11(1), 8. 3 January, 2021 Polish researchers were able to evaluate the etiological agent behind transmissible viral proventriculitis in broiler chickens - the disease that causes severe losses to the poultry industry. The results of their study confirm the hypothesis that the disease is caused by chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), a member of the Birnaviridae family. Additionally, they have discovered that after CPNV infection, birds produce antibodies that can be detected with the use of a commercial ELISA test, which is specific against other, well-characterized Birnaviridae family member. Read More

Lithuania to destroy Salmonella-contaminated eggs

2 January, 2021 German-owned retailer Lidl Lietuva will have to destroy 38,400 cartons of chicken eggs delivered from Ukraine, which have been found to be contaminated with Salmonella.
The eggs had been imported from Ukraine by Latvia-based company Ovostar Europe. Read More