Infectious Diseases 2021

Infectious Diseases 2021

FSA: Report into the sources of human Campylobacter infection published

27 July, 2021 The Food Standards Agency- UK, has published a study to further determine the principal sources of this foodborne disease. A report published by the FSA confirms that chickens are the source of the majority of human cases of Campylobacter, followed by other animals such as sheep, pigs and cows. This infection may have been passed to people directly through food, but could also be via environmental and water contamination.
The Campylobacter Source Attribution Study, launched in 2015 as part of the FSA’s wider and ongoing Campylobacter Reduction Programme, also reveals an increase in antimicrobial resistance within Campylobacter strains between 1997 and 2018. Around 300,000 human cases of Campylobacter are estimated to be acquired from food each year in the UK, out of a total of around 630,000 cases. Read More

Salmonella reports fall in Austria

17 July, 2021 In 2020, the number of primary human isolates sent to the National Reference Center for Salmonella (NRZS) decreased by 51.6% as compared to 2019. In 2020, 906 human salmonella isolates were recorded by the NRZS.
An annual incidence of 10.2 / 100,000 inhabitants.
Salmonella enteritidis was the most frequent serovar (43.4%) with 393 human isolates. S. typhimurium (including the monophasic variant) was the second most common serotype 166 cases (18.3%). Read More

Epidemiological situation of Campylobacter & Salmonella in Australia, 2016

17 July, 2021 Record levels of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been recorded in Australia, according to the annual surveillance report of notifiable diseases for 2016. Campylobacteriosis was the most frequently notified enteric infection in Australia in 2016. There were 24,164 notified cases of campylobacteriosis in 2016, making it the most frequently notified enteric infection (146.9 per 100,000 population). There has been a 7% increase onthe number of notifications received for 2015 (n= 22,549) and an increase of 33% on the previous five-year historical mean, 2011 to 2015 (n = 18,122). This rise may be associated with the increased use of culture independent diagnostic testing. Read More

Salmonella in Canada

Canada Communicable Disease Report (CCDR) 16 July, 2021 A new study shows that of the 96,082 Salmonella cases reported to the National Enteric Surveillance Program (NESP) in Canada during the 14-year study period,4.4% were bacteremic. Patients with bacteremia are more likely to experience severe outcomes, including hospitalization and death, unless treated promptly with antibiotics. 19 nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were identified as having higher rates of bacteremia. Of the 570 NTS serovars reported to the NESP from 2006 to2019, 136 were associated with bacteremia. Read More

FSIS: revised guidelines for controlling Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry

13 July, 2021 The Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) announced the availability of revised guidelines to assist poultry establishments in controlling Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry. The Agency has revised the content of the guidelines in light of new scientific and technical information, public comments received on the 2015 guideline, and the agency’s decision to issue two separate guidelines - one on controlling Salmonella and the other on controlling Campylobacter. Read More

Salmonellosis in Sweden

5 July, 2021 Salmonella was not detected in any of the 4147 broiler flocks tested in routine sampling before slaughter. Salmonella was detected in 7 of the 646 flocks of layers tested. Salmonella was not detected in any breeding flocks, neither in any samples of commercially raised turkey flocks, quails, or ostriches. Salmonella was detected in one small-scale flock with laying hens, ducks and geese. It is estimated that approximately 20% of the poultry holdings lackan annual official sampling.Humans: In 2020, a total of 826 cases of salmonellosis were reported, compared to 1993 cases in 2019. Read More

Campylobacter in Sweden

5 July, 2021 Since 1997, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis in Sweden has varied between 65 and 110 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. Most cases are infected abroad, but in 2014–2018 the proportion of domestic infections increased due to several major outbreaks caused by domestically produced chicken meat. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in both a record low incidence of Campylobacteriosis and a record high proportion of domestic infections in relation to infections retrieved abroad in 2020.
The strong association between the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and infections among humans makes monitoring in broiler flocks an important tool for early warning. The Swedish Poultry Meat Association has operated a monitoring programme for broiler chicken since 1991. The goal is to achieve an overall annual Campylobacter prevalence of less than 10% in slaughter batches of chicken. Read More

CDC: Listeria outbreak linked to precooked chicken

3 July, 2021 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with public health and regulatory officials in several states, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) are investigating an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections that has sickened three people in two states (Texas and Delaware).
Epidemiologic and laboratory data show that some precooked chicken products may be contaminated with Listeria and may be making people sick. Read More

UK: Major retailers publish campylobacter results - Q1

19 June, 2021 The top nine retailers across the UK have published their latest testing results on campylobacter contamination in UK-produced fresh whole chickens (covering samples tested from January to March 2021). The Food Standards Agency (FSA) maximum acceptable level is 7 percent of birds with more than 1,000 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of Campylobacter.
The latest results, which cover January to March this year (Q1 of 2021), show that all nine supermarkets have achieved levels below this amount of heavy contamination. Similarly, the majority have recorded contamination levels that are lower than they did between October and December last year (Q4 of 2020). Read More

Campylobacter contamination in fresh whole UK produced chilled chickens at retail sale

19 June, 2021 Research published by the FSA has found the percentage of chicken sold at smaller retailers contaminated at more than 1,000 CFU/g is still higher than samples from supermarkets. The UK-wide survey looked at the levels of Campylobacter on whole fresh retail chickens on sale in farm shops and markets, butchers and smaller chains such as Iceland, McColl’s, Budgens, Nisa, Costcutter, and One Stop. A total of 1,009 fresh raw chickens were collected from August 2018 to July 2019.Campylobacter spp. were detected in 55.8% of the chicken skin samples obtained from non-major retailer shops, and 10.8% of the samples had counts above 1000 cfu per g chicken skin. Read More

Eurosurveillance: data on H5N8 isolated from a Russian poultry worker

Eurosurveillance: Vol 26, Issue 24, 17/Jun/2021 19 June, 2021 In December 2020, the RNA of avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs taken from seven poultry workers during an outbreak at a large poultry farm in the Astrakhan region on the Volga River in southern Russia. An influenza A(H5N8) virus isolate was obtained from one human clinical specimen.
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred at the Vladimirovskaya poultry farm located in Astrakhan region, Russia. The total flock size at the poultry farm was 924,612 chickens of all ages. On 3 December 2020, the first 750 chickens died and additional mortality was later observed at the site. All birds had the same symptoms (diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, haemorrhagic lesions of the respiratory and digestive tract). The Astrakhan Veterinary Laboratory preliminarily detected influenza A(H5) viral RNA in poultry tissue samples (lung, trachea, intestine, spleen) from a subset of 18 dead birds on 7 December 2020. Read More

Northern Ireland: severe ILT outbreak

14 June, 2021 An outbreak of infectious Laryngotracheitis in Northern Ireland is said to have infected 250,000 birds.
There have been eighteen cases of ILT reported by Private Veterinary Practitioners (PVP) in Northern Ireland since 4 May to date. Read More

USA: Increased incidence of AMR nontyphoidal salmonella infections, 2004–2016

Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol 27, Number 6 - June 2021 13 June, 2021 The annual incidence of resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections was 40% higher in 2015 and 2016 compared with the years 2004 to 2008, according to a study published in Emerging Infectious Diseases. Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and antimicrobial-resistant strains pose a serious threat to public health. From 2004-2008 to 2015-2016, there was an estimated 40% increase in the annual incidence of Salmonella infections with clinically important resistance to any of three antimicrobial drugs recommended to treat severe infections. Read More

Avian influenza overview February – May 2021

9 June, 2021 A Scientific report from European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), published on May 31, 2021, describes the February-May 2021 European High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) season as “one of the largest and most devastating HPAI epidemics ever occurred in Europe.” The 2020-2021 HPAI epidemic counts 3,555 detected infections in 27 European countries (22 EU MS, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United Kingdom), involving 22.4 million poultry birds. The epicenter of the HPAI epidemic appears to have been in Germany and Poland, with the former country detecting the largest number of infections in wild birds (603) and the latter the largest number of outbreaks in farm flocks (297). During this period, sixteen different HPAI genotypes were found, indicating a high level of virus reassortment. Read More

CDC alerts salmonella outbreak from breaded, stuffed chicken

4 June, 2021 Federal health officials are investigating a multistate salmonella outbreak tied to raw frozen breaded stuffed chicken.
As of June 2, 2021, a total of 17 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis have been reported from 6 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from February 21, 2021 to May 7, 2021.
Sick people range in age from 3 to 83 years, with a median age of 52 years, and 60% are female. Of 13 people with information available, 8 (62%) have been hospitalized; no deaths have been reported.
Six states have reported illnesses in connection with the outbreak, including Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Michigan, New York and Arizona. Read More

First human case of H10N3 avian influenza

1 June, 2021 China's National Health Commission informed that the first case of human infection with the H10N3 strain of avian influenza from the country's eastern Jiangsu province has been reported. The patient, a 41-year-old man from Zhenjiang city, is currently in a stable condition and meets discharge standards. The man is from the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province on China's east-central coast. His symptoms—nausea and fever—began on Apr 23. He was admitted to an intensive care unit on Apr 28, and he is currently listed in stable condition.
An investigation found no clear history of exposure to poultry, and no H10N3 had been detected in local poultry. No related infections were found in any of the man's contacts. Genetic analysis found that the virus is avian in origin. Read More

USDA recalls 65 tons of frozen chicken

29 May, 2021 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has issued a public health alert for approximately 65 tons (130,860 pounds) of frozen fully cooked, diced chicken products because they may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.
The problem was discovered during routine FSIS inspection activities when inspection personnel observed products requiring recooking due to possible L. monocytogenes contamination had been repackaged without being recooked. A subsequent FSIS investigation determined other affected product had been further distributed in commerce. There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products. Read More

The Netherlands: WBVR tests foxes positive for avian influenza (H5N1)

29 May, 2021 Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) has diagnosed bird flu in two foxes from the province of Groningen in the Netherlands and characterized the viruses as H5N1. The sequences of the avian influenza viruses in the foxes are similar to those identified in infected wild birds from the same region. It is therefore likely that the foxes became infected from eating a bird infected with avian influenza. Avian influenza virus infections in foxes have been previously observed in other parts of the world and recently in England. Read More

New Zealand: salmonella enteritidis at a poultry farm.

28 May, 2021 New Zealand Food Safety has taken precautionary action following the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis at an Auckland poultry farm. There had been an increase in human cases caused by the same strain of salmonella found in MPI's investigation, which was being tracked with the Ministry of Health.
A New Zealand Food Safety audit and follow-up testing has found the bacterium at an Auckland supplier of hatching eggs and day-old chicks to industry. Read More

Overview of Dutch farms with avian influenza 2020/2021

28 May, 2021 Below is an overview of previous avian influenza infections on commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands in 2020/2021. Read More

CDC: Salmonella outbreaks linked to backyard poultry

22 May, 2021 CDC and public health officials in many states are collecting different types of data to investigate multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections with serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, and Infantis.
Epidemiologic and laboratory data show that contact with backyard poultry is making people sick.
As of May 20, 2021, a total of 163 people infected with one of the outbreak strains have been reported from 43 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from February 12, 2021, to April 25, 2021.
Sick people range in age from less than 1 to 87 years, with a median age of 24 years, and 58% are female. Of 109 people with information available, 34 (31%) have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Read More

Avian influenza in Tibet, South Africa & Romania

22 May, 2021 China has reported an outbreak of H5N8 avian influenza in Nagqu City, southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region. The highly pathogenic disease has been detected among wild birds in two areas of Nagqu, including a national wetland park. So far, 268 wild birds have been infected and killed.
South Africa: Approximately 134,000 chickens have died or been culled in the Western Cape as a result of a avian influenza outbreak affecting the province. Avian influenza (H5N1), has been detected at four poultry farms in the Western Cape so far. The infected farms are situated near Worcester, Malmesbury, and Hopefield. An avian influenza outbreak was first detected in Gauteng last month where at least two farms in the East Rand have been affected. Read More

Salmonella Infantis in Dutch broiler flocks

Veterinary Microbiology 258 (2021) 22 May, 2021 Since 2014, S. Infantis has been the most commonly isolated serovar in broilers in the Netherlands, accounting for 78% of all Salmonella isolates from broilers reported in 2018. Also Europe-wide, S. Infantis is currently the most common serovar in broilers (46–57 %) and broiler meat (37–51 %),and its prevalence has increased in breeding flocks as well. Moreover, S. Infantis ranked fourth among the serovars isolated from human salmonellosis cases in the Netherlands and in Europe in the past few years, after S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant. In 2014, a multi-drug resistant S. Infantis strain was identified in Israel carrying a mega-plasmid of approximately 300 Kb named pESI (plasmid of emerging S. Infantis). Read More

Organic meat less likely to be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria

14 May, 2021 Meat that is certified organic by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is less likely to be contaminated with bacteria that can sicken people, including dangerous, multidrug-resistant organisms, compared to conventionally produced meat, according to a study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The researchers found that, compared to conventionally processed meats, organic-certified meats were 56% less likely to be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The study was based on nationwide testing of meats from 2012 to 2017 as part of the U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). A longstanding concern about antibiotic use in livestock and livestock feed is the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Read More

CDC: Increased incidence of resistant Salmonella infections

Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol 27, Number 6 June 2021 13 May, 2021 In a study published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, the researchers estimated a 40% increase in the annual incidence of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections with clinically important resistance in 2015-2016 compared with 2004-2008. When extrapolated to the entire US population, that amounts to roughly 63,000 more infections a year caused by antibiotic-resistant Salmonella.
During 2015–2016, the mean annual incidence was 2.38 (95% CrI 1.93–2.86)/100,000 persons for clinically important resistant infections and 1.83 (95% CrI 1.45–2.25)/100,000 persons for MDR infections. Read More

Japan: avian influenza has almost ended

10 May, 2021 The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan has almost ended after having swept across the country from last November.
This season, avian influenza was discovered in 18 prefectures, including Chiba and Ibaraki, which are known for poultry farming.
The number of chickens and ducks that were culled this season in order to prevent the further spread of infections stood at around 9.87 million, up drastically from the previous record high of some 1.83 million such birds put down between the autumn of 2010 and the spring the following year. Read More

Salmonella Bareilly and egg powder

Eurosurveillance Volume 26, Issue 14, 08/Apr/2021 1 May, 2021 In August 2017, the number of human S. Bareilly cases reported in the Czech Republic exceeded the maximal annual total number of cases from the previous 5 years (n = 25). The State Veterinary Administration (SVA) identified a Salmonella Bareilly isolate closely related to human outbreak isolates in a powdered egg product called dried egg melange. This led to the agency investigating the company making the powdered egg and inspections at farms that produced eggs for further processing. The first confirmed Salmonella Bareilly patient had disease onset in July 2017. The number of infections peaked in October 2017, and the last confirmed patient was reported in October 2018. In total, 250 probable cases were identified in the Czech Republic and 75 in Slovakia. Two small peaks were observed in Slovakia in October 2017 and April 2018. Read More

Polish-British discussions on food safety

30 April, 2021 Poland's minister for agriculture, Grzegorz Puda, has held virtual talks with George Eustice (Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - UK) to discuss the safety of Polish poultrymeat following salmonella outbreaks linked back to the country.
The UK is the second-largest trading partner for Polish agri-foods and a significant destination for poultrymeat. The Food Standards Agency is investigating the Polish poultry supply chain after several cases of salmonellosis were linked back to frozen breaded chicken products using chicken from the country. Read More

EU: Antimicrobial Resistance in zoonotic bacteria 2018-19

20 April, 2021 Data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food are collected annually by the EU Member States (MSs), jointly analysed by the EFSA and the ECDC and reported in a yearly EU Summary Report.
A sizeable proportion of Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria is still resistant to antibiotics commonly used in humans and animals, as in previous years, says a report released by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In humans, high proportions of resistance to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat several types of infections, were reported in a specific Salmonella type known as S. Kentucky (82.1%). In recent years, S. Enteritidis resistant to nalidixic acid and/or ciprofloxacin has been increasingly reported in several countries. Read More

Ireland: use of unauthorised antibiotics in poultry flocks

17 April, 2021 More than 60,000 chickens have been destroyed at an Irish meat processor after tests identified the birds may have been reared using unauthorised antibiotic growth promoters.
Carton Bros, Ireland’s largest poultry processor, have said routine tests raised the possible use of unauthorised antibiotics. As a result, 60,000 birds were rendered, with tens of thousands more placed in cold storage until testing was completed over fears too that they were not fit for human consumption. Read More

South Africa: Newcastle disease in wild birds

14 April, 2021 Birds found dead, mostly doves, in parts of the Eastern Cape have died of Avian Paramyxovirus and Newcastle diseases. The Eastern Cape department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform confirmed the test results on Tuesday (13/4).
Hundreds of bird deaths have been reported in the Buffalo City Municipality since March, which prompted Neville’s Snake and Reptile Rescue to collect dead birds for testing at the SPCA. Wild birds found mysteriously dying in Gqeberha were also handed to state veterinarians for testing.
Testing and investigation included tracing of birds, collecting and conducting post mortems to identify the cause of bird deaths. Samples collected were sent to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research (OVR) Laboratory for analysis. Read More

FSIS: Raw ground turkey products linked to Salmonella Illness

11 April, 2021 FSIS and its public health partners, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), public health and regulatory officials are investigating a multistate outbreak of 28 Salmonella Hadar illnesses in 12 states with onset dates ranging from December 28, 2020 through March 4, 2021. The traceback investigation for one case patient identified the patient consumed ground turkey produced by Plainville Brands, LLC. An intact, unopened package of Plainville Brands’ ground turkey collected from this case-patient’s home tested positive for Salmonella Hadar and was closely related genetically to the sample from the patient. Evidence collected to date does not link all illnesses to this establishment. Read More

Asda is recalling its Asda 2 Original Chicken Chargrills

7 April, 2021 Supermarket giants Asda has recalled its own brand 2 Original Chicken Chargrills over fears it may contain salmonella. Read More

Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in poultry in Canada, 2013-2018

30 March, 2021 A recent study used data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) to compare the prevalence of Salmonella serovars between broiler chicken and turkey flocks across Canada, and to gain an understanding of the prevalence of resistance to antimicrobials categorized as important to human health. There were 1,596 Salmonella isolates obtained from 514 broiler chicken flocks, and 659 Salmonella isolates obtained from 217 turkey flocks (2013-2018). All isolates were obtained from pooled faecal samples. Among broiler chicken flocks, the top three serovars were Kentucky (n = 573, 36%), Enteritidis (n = 314, 20%) and Heidelberg (n = 127, 8%). Resistance to ceftriaxone among Salmonella ser. Kentucky decreased from 27% in 2013 to 22% in 2018. There was no resistance among Salmonella ser. Enteritidis reported until 2018 when one isolate from British Columbia was resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphisoxazole and tetracycline. Salm Read More

LPAI Detected in San Francisco County LBM

Source: EGG‑ 30 March, 2021 Surveillance detected an avian influenza H5 strain characterized as low pathogenic in a live bird market (LBM) in San Francisco County on March 24th.
The isolation has been reported to the OIE in accordance with International obligations, resulting in possible regional exclusions of exports from San Francisco County. Read More

UK: two outbreaks of avian influenza

30 March, 2021 Two new cases of avian influenza have been confirmed in commercial poultry flocks, as Housing Order set to end.
On Saturday (27 March), the HPAI H5N8 strain was confirmed in broiler chickens at a premises near Uttoxeter, Staffordshire. On Friday (26 March), the LPAI H5N3 strain of avian influenza was confirmed in turkey breeders in Tarporley near Winsford, Cheshire West and Chester. There are about 4,500 birds housed at the facility. Read More

Canada: Outbreak of Salmonella infections linked to eggs - Update

19 March, 2021 As of March 18, 2021, there have been 64 laboratory-confirmed cases of Salmonella Enteritidis illness investigated in the following provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador (26), and Nova Scotia (38). Individuals became sick between late October 2020 and mid February 2021. Nineteen individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 2 and 98 years of age. The majority of cases (70%) are female. Read More

UK: Avian influenza H5N8 strain detected in seals and fox

18 March, 2021 Carcasses of four common seals, one grey seal and one red fox submitted to APHA laboratory during December 2020 for diagnostic PME as part of routine wildlife disease surveillance activities. Two of the Common Seal carcasses were autolysed so were safely disposed of without PME. Following histopathological examination of tissues from the fox and seals identified lesions indicative of acute systemic viral infection further laboratory testing was performed at APHA. This testing resulted in the detection of H5N8 influenza virus infection. Gene Sequencing identified this H5N8 influenza virus to be [99.9%] identical to avian-origin H5N8 viruses detected from the Mute swans that had died and been tested from this wildlife rescue centre. In November 2020, five wild Mute swans (Cygnus olor) that had been rescued and taken to a wildlife rescue centre died, were tested and found to be infected with H5N8 HPAI. Read More

FSA: Two ongoing Salmonella outbreaks linked to frozen breaded chicken products

17 March, 2021 The FSA is reiterating its advice on cooking frozen raw breaded chicken products following links to cases of Salmonella.
SFC has issued an updated recall of chicken products because Salmonella Enteritidis has been found in some of these foods.
The products are linked to two ongoing outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis (two particular strains) in chicken from Poland.
The two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in frozen, raw, breaded chicken products from Poland have caused almost 500 illnesses since January and at least one death. Read More

Potential interplay of resistance genes between enteric bacteria

Szmolka et al (2021) Front Microbiol 17 March, 2021 Commensal and pathogenic strains of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and non-typhoid strains of Salmonella represent a growing foodborne threat from foods of poultry origin. MDR strains of Salmonella Infantis and E. coli are frequently isolated from broiler chicks and the simultaneous presence of these two enteric bacterial species would potentially allow the exchange of mobile resistance determinants.
A recent study in Front Microbiol found that commensal E. coli could be potential reservoirs of resistance for S. Infantis. Read More

Singapore recalls eggs from Malaysian farm due to Salmonella

13 March, 2021 The Singapore Food Agency (SFA) has directed several importers to recall eggs from Lay Hong Berhad Layer Farm Jeram in Malaysia, after detecting the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the eggs. Read More

Salmonella in space

npj Microgravity - 09 March 2021 13 March, 2021 New study from space station looks at human cells infected with Salmonella typhimurium. The cells were compared with cells infected on the ground on Earth to see what changes may occur in space. Spaceflight uniquely alters the physiology of both human cells and microbial pathogens, stimulating cellular and molecular changes directly relevant to infectious disease.
The scientists found evidence that changes in the cells brought on by a microgravity environment may lead to salmonella being more virulent in space. Read More

Campylobacter contamination of UK-produced Halal chicken at retail

J Food Prot . 2021 6 March, 2021 A new study demonstrates that Halal chicken has a higher Campylobacter prevalence than non-Halal chicken. This project aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat produced for the UK Halal market. Campylobacter was identified and enumerated from the neck skin and outer packaging of 405 Halal chickens. Campylobacter spp. were confirmed in 65.4% of neck skin samples and 17.1% of packaging samples. Read More

Avian influenza in Europe - overview

ECDC 27 February, 2021 From 26 November 2020 to 11 February 2021, a total of 566 HPAI outbreaks in poultry were notified in 18 countries in the Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS): 439 in France, 45 in Germany, 39 in Poland, 12 in the United Kingdom , 12 in Ukraine, six in Hungary, four in the Netherlands, four in Czechia, four in Bulgaria, three in Sweden, two in Northern Ireland , and one in Italy, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Romania, and Slovakia. During this time, a total of 8,059,478 birds were affected. Two of the outbreaks (one in the Netherlands and one in the United Kingdom) were reported to be A(H5N1) subtype, and two were A(H5N5) (one in Sweden and one in Slovakia) subtype. All the other outbreaks were reported to be A(H5N8) subtype. Read More

EFSA: Salmonellosis in The EU - 2019

27 February, 2021 Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection in humans after campylobacteriosis, and an important cause of food-borne outbreaks in the EU/EEA.
In 2019, 87,923 confirmed cases of salmonellosis in humans were reported with an EU notification rate of 20.0 cases per 100,000 population, which was at the same level as in 2018.
In total, 15 MS provided information on hospitalisation. The proportion of confirmed cases with known hospitalisation information was 44.5% at the EU level. Among these, the proportion of hospitalised cases was 42.5%, which was about at the same level as in 2018. Overall, 17 MS provided data on the outcome of salmonellosis and, among these, 11 MS reported 140 fatal cases resulting in an EU case fatality of 0.22%. Here, 46 fatal cases (32.9%) were reported by the United Kingdom. Read More

EFSA: Foodborne outbreaks in Europe

27 February, 2021 During 2019, 27 Member States reported 5,175 food-borne outbreaks involving 49,463 cases of illness, 3,859 hospitalisations and 60 deaths. In addition, 117 outbreaks, 3,760 cases of illness and 158 hospitalisations were communicated by six non-MS.
The health impact of food-borne outbreaks in the EU was important in 2019 since 60 outbreak related deaths were reported; 20 more fatal cases than in 2018 (+50%). A high number of deaths (N = 10) were registered in community settings such as ‘residential institution (nursing home or prison or boarding school)’. In addition, nearly 19% of cases involved in strong-evidence outbreaks (2,407 cases) were exposed to contaminated foods in schools or kindergartens. These findings highlighted the need for attention to the high risk of vulnerable populations to food-borne hazards. Read More

EFSA: Campylobacteriosis in The EU - 2019

26 February, 2021 The first and second most reported zoonoses in humans were campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, respectively. The EU trend for confirmed human cases of these two diseases was stable (flat) during 2015–2019.
Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection in humans in the
EU and has been so since 2005.
• In 2019, the number of confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis was 220,682
corresponding to an EU notification rate of 59.7 per 100,000 population, which is a decrease
by 6.9% compared with the rate in 2018 (64.1 per 100,000 population).
• The trend for campylobacteriosis in humans remained stable (flat) during 2015–2019.
• Most cases (94.4%) with known origin of infection had acquired the infection in the EU.
• In 2019, Campylobacter was the third most frequently reported causative agent of food-borne
outbreaks at EU level, by 18 MS, with 319 outbreaks reported to EFSA, involving 1,254 cases
of illness, 125 hospitalisations and no deaths. Eig Read More

Multi-country outbreak of S. Enteritidis infections linked to poultry products in the EU/EEA and the UK

Source: ECDC 26 February, 2021 Between May 2018 and December 2020, 193 human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis sequence type (ST)11 were reported in Denmark (2), Finland (4), France (33), Germany (6), Ireland (12), the Netherlands (3),Poland (5), Sweden (6), and the United Kingdom (UK) (122). One in five cases (19.7%) has been hospitalised and France has reported one death (an 86-year-old female). Fifty percent of the cases were children ≤ 18 years. The most recent case was reported by the UK in December 2020.
Epidemiological studies in the UK have identified an increased risk of S. Enteritidis infection associated with the consumption of frozen breaded chicken products. Five batches of non-ready-to-eat poultry products (e.g. breaded products) tested positive for S. Enteritidis matching the outbreak strain. Three of these were manufactured by the Polish Processing Company B where S. Enteritidis was not detected. The five positive batches were traced back to different meat suppliers, slaughterhouses, and/or farms in P Read More

Outbreaks of foodborne Salmonella Enteritidis in The United States 1990-2015

International Journal of Infectious Diseases - 2021 25 February, 2021 A new study analyzed the data of all Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1990 to 2015.
In the USA, from 1990-2015, there were 1144 single-state SE outbreaks reported to CDC. Of 1144 SE outbreaks, 657 (57%) were reported with known food items, and 487 (43%) were unknown source-based outbreaks. Of 657 known food source outbreaks, 273 (24%) were associated with egg-based products and ranked as the leading cause of SE outbreaks cumulatively from 1990 to 2015. Meat products were the next most common cause of SE outbreaks (130, 11%) followed by vegetables (96, 8%), chicken (95, 8%), dairy products (55, 5%), and bakery items (8, 1%). the highest number of outbreaks were reported in 1990 (88, 8%) followed by 1991 (74, 7%) and 1993 (69, 6%). Read More

ECDC: Threat Assessment on first identification of human cases of H5N8

Source: ECDC 24 February, 2021 On 20 February 2021, Russian authorities reported the detection of influenza A(H5N8) virus infection in seven poultry workers in an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus on a poultry farm in the south of Russia. All seven human cases were reported to be mild or asymptomatic. HPAI A(H5N8) viruses have been circulating in European bird populations since 2014, causing large outbreaks and affected several million of birds and poultry. More than 10,000 exposure events of people have been estimated between 2016 and 2018. Since October 2020, around 1,700 outbreaks in poultry holdings and wild bird findings due to A(H5N8) and other reassorted A(H5Nx) viruses have been reported to the animal disease notification system (ADNS) from the European Union (EU), the European Economic Area (EEA) and neighbouring countries. Read More

Recall of fried chicken due to salmonella risk

22 February, 2021 The Food Standards Agency (FSA) along with Food Standards Scotland (FSS) and Public Health England (PHE), Public Health Scotland and Public Health Wales issued two product recalls of products linked to two ongoing outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis. An investigation is ongoing into two particular strains of Salmonella linked to frozen raw breaded chicken products.
It has confirmed that the salmonella originated in Poland and it is trying to identify the Polish farm or farms involved.
From January 2020, there have been 480 patients confirmed with salmonellosis caused by two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and linked to consumption of frozen, raw, breaded chicken products. The Food Standards Agency have issued a warning over both SFC’s Chicken Poppets and Take Home Boneless Bucket sold at B&M, Tesco, Sainsbury’s and Morrisons. Read More

Russia: first report on H5N8 in humans

20 February, 2021 H5N8 has never been known to infect humans. Now, Russian officials are reporting human infections with the A(H5N8) avian influenza virus. Seven people at a poultry farm in southern Russia have been infected with H5N8 avian influenza, making it the first time that the highly pathogenic virus has been found in humans. Read More

Canada: Egg consumption is the likely culprit of salmonella outbreak

19 February, 2021 The Public Health Agency of Canada is investigating an outbreak of salmonella infections in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. Fifty-seven sick people infected with Salmonella enteritidis. Based on the investigation findings to date, exposure to eggs has been identified as a likely source of the outbreak. Individuals became sick between late October 2020 and late January 2021. Nineteen people have been hospitalized. Individuals who became ill are between 2 and 98 years of age. The majority of cases (68%) are female. No deaths have been reported. Read More

Campylobacter bacteria can exchange genetic material

Plos One, Feb. 11, 2021 19 February, 2021 Campylobacter is the worldwide leading cause for foodborne illness and it persists throughout poultry production, from farm to grocery shelves. According to new research, two of the most common strains are exchanging genetic material.
Campylobacter bacteria spread primarily through consumption of contaminated food products. There are two strains of Campylobacter that we’re concerned with:
C. coli and C. jejuni.
C. jejuni causes up to 90% of human Campylobacter infections, but this strain is less likely to carry multidrug-resistant genes. C. coli is twice as likely to contain multidrug-resistant genes, but it’s a less effective human pathogen. Read More

S. Korea to temporarily ease AI-related culling rules

18 February, 2021 South Korea plans to temporarily ease precautionary measures against avian influenza as the spread of HPAI has slowed. The country has so far culled 26 million poultry under its policy of destroying all birds within a 3-km radius of infected farms. South Korea plans to destroy the same kind of poultry within a 1-kilometer radius of infected farms for the next two weeks, when avian influenza cases are reported. Local farmers have complained about authorities' policy of culling all birds, claiming that the excessive measures led to a hike in prices of poultry goods, which only ended up benefiting importers. Read More

Annual report concerning Foodborne Diseases in New Zealand 2019

3 February, 2021 The annual report concerning Foodborne Diseases provides annual data on foodborne trends in New Zealand.
Campylobacteriosis: During 2019, 6202 cases (126.1 per 100,000 population) of campylobacteriosis and no resulting deaths were reported. Approximately 9% of cases were recorded as hospitalised in 2019. Of the 702 hospital admissions (14.3 admissions per 100,000 population) recorded in 2019, 582 cases were reported with campylobacteriosis as the primary diagnosis and 120 were reported with campylobacteriosis as another relevant diagnosis.
It has been estimated by expert consultation that 63.8% of campylobacteriosis incidence is due to foodborne transmission. It was further estimated that 75.4% of foodborne transmission would be due to transmission via poultry. Read More

UK: Salmonella fears cause recall on chicken products

2 February, 2021 Lidl is recalling Red Hen Breaded Chicken Nuggets and Red Hen Southern Fried Chicken Pops because of salmonella contamination.
Aldi is recalling frozen packs of both Roosters Southern Fried Poppin' Chicken and Roosters Breaded Poppin' Chicken because the products may contain salmonella. Read More

USDA urged to better protect consumers from Salmonella, Campylobacter in poultry

27 January, 2021 A petition filed by several consumer groups and affected individuals has called on the US Department of Agriculture to better regulate US slaughterhouses to help reduce cases of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the US.
Food safety advocates are calling on the United States Department of Agriculture to better protect consumers with new enforceable standards that will reduce, with an aim to ultimately eliminate, Salmonella types of greatest public health concern while continuing to target reductions in Salmonella and Campylobacter overall. Read More

Sweden to cull 1.3M chicken after avian influenza hits farm

26 January, 2021 An outbreak of avian influenza has hit the southern municipality of Monsteras in Sweden's Kalmar County, and 1.3 million laying hens will now have to be culled and destroyed.
An extensive spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 and H5N5 has been found on a farm in the municipality. A large flock of laying hens has been affected and the infection has spread further in the facility, which now leads to 1.3 million poultry having to be killed and destroyed. Read More

S. Korea culled nearly 19M birds over avian influenza

19 January, 2021 A total of 18.8 million birds have been culled at farms across South Korea as part of measures to curb the spread of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza. South Korea reported the first case of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza at a duck farm in the North Jeolla province in late November. Read More

Japan: 5.8M birds have been culled due to avian influenza

18 January, 2021 Since last November, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 has been detected on 36 poultry farms in 15 prefectures, moving from western Japan, including Kagawa and Miyazaki prefectures, to central and eastern Japan, including Gifu and Chiba prefectures. Read More

Finland: egg recall due to Salmonella

17 January, 2021 Three Finnish firms have recalled eggs because they might be contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis, according to the Finnish Food Authority. Eggs branded as Kieku, Kesko's Pirkka brand and Kotimaista by S-Grouphave been pulled from shelves.
Packs of ten free range Kotimaista eggs are part of the recall, as are ten-egg and six-egg packs of free range Pirkka eggs.
Kieku has also added its Kieku-branded four-egg packs to the recall. Read More

Presence of Salmonella in chicken meat from conventional and without antibiotic-related claims

International Journal of Food Microbiology 2021 16 January, 2021 Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-typhoidal Salmonella from poultry is a public health concern. Injudicious use of antibiotics in humans and agriculture fuels the emergence of resistance. The objective of a new study was to characterize the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and genetic resistance mechanisms of Salmonella isolated from US retail poultry meat samples with and without antibiotic-related claims. The study reviewed data from 46,937 poultry meat samples collected from 2008 to 2017 through the FDA NARMS retail meat program. Antibiotic usage claims on the poultry packaging were used to categorize the sample as 'conventionally raised' or 'reduced or no antibiotic use'. The results show that the prevalence of Salmonella in conventional poultry samples (8.6%) was higher than reduced or no antibiotic use poultry samples (5.1%). The odds of MDR≥3 were 2.61 times higher for Salmonella isolates from conventional samples, compared to isolates from redu Read More

Hungary: avian influenza

14 January, 2021 Hungary’s food safety authority NEBIH ordered the slaughter of 101,000 chicken layers due to avian influenza.
In the affected holding, at Kerekegyháza, Bacs-Kiskun, 101,185 laying hens have been kept in four pens. In one of these pens, where 28,800 laying hens were kept, a drop in egg production and soft-shell eggs have been observed. No other symptoms and no increased mortality have been registered. Read More

Germany: avian influenza outbreaks

14 January, 2021 An overview of avian influenza HPAI-H5N8 outbreaks on commercial poultry farms in Germany. Read More

UK: Avian influenza list of outbreaks

9 January, 2021 An overview of avian influenza outbreaks on commercial poultry farms in UK. Read More

TVP caused by CPNV displaying serological cross-reactivity with IBDV

Animals 2021, 11(1), 8. 3 January, 2021 Polish researchers were able to evaluate the etiological agent behind transmissible viral proventriculitis in broiler chickens - the disease that causes severe losses to the poultry industry. The results of their study confirm the hypothesis that the disease is caused by chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), a member of the Birnaviridae family. Additionally, they have discovered that after CPNV infection, birds produce antibodies that can be detected with the use of a commercial ELISA test, which is specific against other, well-characterized Birnaviridae family member. Read More

Lithuania to destroy Salmonella-contaminated eggs

2 January, 2021 German-owned retailer Lidl Lietuva will have to destroy 38,400 cartons of chicken eggs delivered from Ukraine, which have been found to be contaminated with Salmonella.
The eggs had been imported from Ukraine by Latvia-based company Ovostar Europe. Read More