Infectious Diseases 2023

Infectious Diseases 2023

Peru: SENASA confirm death of 3 sea lions and a dolphin due to avian influenza

6 February, 2023 The National Agrarian Health Service of Peru (Senasa) confirmed the death of 3 sea lions in Lima and a dolphin in Piura due to avian influenza. This information was sent to the Ministry of Health through an official letter to take the corresponding actions.
According to the document addressed to César Munayco, general director of the National Center for Epidemiology, Prevention and Control of Diseases of the Minsa, the 3 sea lions coming from the coast of Lima tested positive for the type A avian influenza virus . A similar situation occurred in the analysis of a dolphin from Paita, in Piura. Read More

Bolivia: first case of avian influenza

1 February, 2023 For the first time, Bolivia has reported two occurrences of H5N1 avian influenza. This highly contagious virus has already caused the death of countless birds in the United States and Europe, according to Reuters. The propagation of the virus is of significant concern for government entities and poultry industry personnel as it impedes supply, escalates food prices, and carries the potential of transmission to humans. According to the World Organisation for Animal Health, based in Paris, the first outbreak was identified on a laying-hen farm in Sacaba containing 35,000 birds. The second was found on a small property in Quillacollo with 202 domestic ducks, geese, and chickens. Read More

Ireland: Culls of poultry flocks due to salmonella outbreak

1 February, 2023 More than 7,000 birds across eight poultry farms throughout Ireland must be slaughtered in order to prevent infected chicken products from entering the food chain. The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has verified that this salmonella outbreak was related to the chicken products recalled from stores last week. Restrictions have been put into place within the local vicinity of the farms, primarily in the County Cavan area. Testing in commercial poultry flocks around Ireland has been increased since the recall to find any link between the food source and the various outbreaks. Read More

France: Cat infected with avian influenza

27 January, 2023 A domestic cat was found to have been infected with avian influenza, and euthanised after suffering severe neurological symptoms. It is the first case of its kind in France.
The cat, which lived in Mauléon, Deux-Sèvres in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, picked up the virus from a nearby poultry farm that raised ducks.
First of its kind in France.
A few days before the virus was discovered in the cat, 8,000 birds at a nearby farm were slaughtered due to a bird flu outbreak. Read More

India: Salmonellosis due to raw egg mayonnaise

Source: The Hindu 25 January, 2023 Salmonella has been found in the samples collected after nearly 106 people consumed food from an eatery in North Paravur in Ernakulam and suffered foodborne illness. Illness was reported in people who ate mayonnaise, grilled chicken, and mixed fried rice from Majlis Hotel near the municipal office building.
The infection was mostly found in people with mayonnaise made from raw eggs. Read More

Zoonotic potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses

Microbiol Spectr 2023 Jan 23;e0286722. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.02867-22. 24 January, 2023 Researchers from the Netherlands investigated different H5N1 isolates from Red Foxes found positive for HPAI virus. Three wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were submitted with neurological symptoms (likely due to the foxes feeding on infected birds) between December of 2021 and February of 2022. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the virus was mainly present in the brain, with limited or no detection in the respiratory tract or other organs. Limited or no virus shedding was observed in throat and rectal swabs.
Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three fox viruses were not closely related, but they were related to HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses that are found in wild birds. This suggests that the virus was not transmitted between the foxes. Read More

HPAI A(H5N1) virus infection in farmed minks, Spain, October 2022

Eurosurveillance | Volume 28 | Issue 3 20 January, 2023 Last October we report an outbreak of Avian H5N1 in a Mink farm in Spain. Now the journal Eurosurveillance provides a detailed report on the outbreak. This is the first report of clade 2.3.4.4b HPAI H5N1 virus infection of minks farmed for their fur in Europe. The minks were fed with raw fish and poultry by-products, cereals, and blood meal. Poultry farms and avian slaughterhouses supplying the poultry by-products were located in Galicia. Up to 10 January 2023, H5N1 poultry outbreaks have not been reported in this region.
The viruses identified presented the highest similarity with strains of the A/gull/France/22P015977/2022-like genotype, which has already been described in multiple wild bird species and sporadically in poultry across northern Europe. Read More

Sweden: Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak

19 January, 2023 Since the beginning of December 2022, 22 cases of illness infected with the same strain of Salmonella Enteritidis have been reported to the Public Health Authority of Sweden. The infection is suspected to originate from eggs that have now been recalled.
At the end of December 2022, Salmonella Enteritidis was identified at a major Swedish egg producer, which has led to several recalls of fresh eggs.
An outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis involving 22 people from eleven different regions has now been identified and is being investigated. Since several of the sick have eaten dishes containing raw eggs from the now-recalled batches, there are strong reasons to suspect a connection to the earlier Salmonella finding at the egg producer. The disease cases are aged 7-90 years (median=40 years), twelve of the cases are women and the illnesses occurred between December 7, 2022, and January 6, 2023. Read More

Grizzly bears test positive for avian influenza in Montana

19 January, 2023 Three grizzly bears were euthanized in Montana after they became ill and tested positive for the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, according to the state’s Department of Fish, Wildlife & Parks.
The bears were observed to be in poor condition and exhibited disorientation and partial blindness, among other neurological issues. They were euthanized due to their sickness and poor condition. Read More

Human infection caused by avian influenza A(H5) - Ecuador

WHO 18 January, 2023 On 9 January 2023, WHO was notified of a human infection caused by an avian influenza A(H5) virus. The case, a nine-year-old girl, living in a rural area in the province of Bolívar, Ecuador, was in contact with backyard poultry, which was acquired a week before the onset of her symptoms, which died without apparent cause on 19 December 2022. She developed symptoms of conjunctivitis and a runny nose on 25 December 2022. On 30 December, due to the persistent symptoms including nausea, vomiting and constipation, she was admitted to a general hospital where empirical treatment for meningitis was started with antibiotics and antipyretics. On 3 January 2023, she was transferred to a pediatric hospital in critical condition where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with septic shock and was treated with antivirals and mechanical ventilation due to pneumonia. She is currently hospitalized, in isolation. Read More

PAHO: Outbreaks of avian influenza A(H5) in the Region of the Americas

12 January, 2023 As of epidemiological week (EW) 1 of 2023, agricultural authorities in Canada, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, the United Stated of America, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela have detected outbreaks of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses in domestic birds, farm poultry, and/or wild birds. The detection of HPAI outbreaks in eight countries in Latin America and the Caribbean is a situation never recorded.
To date, there have been two human infections caused by avian influenza A(H5), the first in the United States of America in which the subtype A(H5N1) was identified and reported on 29 April 2022 and the second in Ecuador, which was notified on 9 January 2023. Read More

Avian influenza detected in Honduras

11 January, 2023 Honduras reports HPAI H5N1 in brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) found on the beach of La Ceiba and Puerto Cortés (northern Honduras). No cases have been reported among domestic or poultry birds and no human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) have been reported in relation to identified outbreaks. Read More

Ecuador: first case of avian influenza in a nine-year-old girl

11 January, 2023 The Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador reports 1st human case of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (clade 2.3.4.4b) in Ecuador. The case is a 9-year-old girl presumed to have had direct contact with infected poultry.
The patient is currently hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit, in isolation and with antiviral and supportive treatment. Read More

Denmark: Foxes positive to H5N1

9 January, 2023 Highly pathogenic avian influenza has been detected in Danish foxes for the first time.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been detected in samples from 4 wild Danish foxes (Three fox puppies around 4-5 weeks old and an adult male fox). The foxes have presumably died as a result of infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza. The foxes have been autopsied by the Pathology Service at the University of Copenhagen and influenza has been detected by analyzes carried out at the Statens Serum Institut. Read More

Britain: Salmonella detection in laying hens

Zoonoses Public Health | 2023 7 January, 2023 As part of the measures to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in poultry in the UK, National Control Programmes (NCPs) have been implemented. These involve regular statutory testing of poultry holdings to monitor and estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in the national flock population and to control Salmonella on holdings with positive flocks, especially those serovars most identified with human illness: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and S. Typhimurium (ST).
The aim of a new study published in Zoonoses and Public Health was to estimate the sensitivity of both the Operator and Competent Authority (CA) Official sampling used to detect infected flocks and to also estimate the true proportion of infected holdings of commercial laying flocks in GB each year of the NCP, along with the trend of any changes in prevalence for both SE/ST and non-SE/ST. A Bayesian model was developed to estimate the sensitivity of both Operator and CA Official sampling from the NCP data 2009–2018, and to esti Read More

Two outbreaks of Salmonella linked to kebab shops in Canberra, Australia

7 January, 2023 Two outbreaks of Salmonella associated with kebab shops in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory are reported in a publication.
The first consisted of 12 cases of Salmonella Agona, nine of whom reported eating chicken from the same kebab shop.
The second consisted of two cases of Salmonella Virchow who both reported eating chicken from another (unrelated) kebab shop. Environmental investigations identified similar food safety issues at both businesses, including improper cleaning of kebab shaving equipment and serving cut rotisserie meat without further cooking.
Environmental samples detected Salmonella genomically linked to the respective outbreak cases. In both outbreaks, inadequate temperature control of meat may have been a contributing factor. Read More

More Mammals Confirmed with Avian influenza

5 January, 2023 The StarHeral reported HAPI infections were the cause of death for four animals at the Riverside Discovery Center in Scottsbluff. The Nebraska zoo confirmed a cougar, bear, and two tigers had died. Read More

France: Campylobacter surveillance in 2021

Source: Santé Publique France 5 January, 2023 In 2021, surveillance of Campylobacter infections confirmed the epidemiological and biological trends already observed in recent years. Specifically, the data shows:
a predominance of the species C. jejuni;
a higher number of cases and incidence in children with a maximum incidence in 0-9 year olds (27 cases/100,000 inhabitants);
a predominance of infections in men 15 cases per 100,000 inhabitants versus 11 cases per 100,000 for women (less marked trend in people aged 20 to 39);
a seasonal peak during the summer period;
high resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, which has remained stable in recent years;
no notable increase in the resistance rates of the six antibiotics tested routinely;
consumption of poultry products as the first food (incriminated or suspected) identified as a source of contamination in episodes of collective food poisoning. Read More

Sweden: Coop recalls egg free-range

4 January, 2023 Coop (Sweden) one of Sweden's largest groceries is recalling Coop Egg Free-range 12-pack, Coop Egg Free-range 24-pack and Xtra Egg Free-range 15-pack with three different best-before dates. The reason for the recall is that the goods may contain salmonella. During a routine check, the supplier of the eggs discovered salmonella in one of the stables where the eggs were laid. Read More