Infectious Diseases 2020

Infectious Diseases 2020

Japan: avian influenza spreads to 4th prefecture

1 December, 2020 Avian influenza was discovered at a poultry farm in Hyuga city in Miyazaki prefecture in southwestern Japan. This is the fourth prefecture affected by the virus.
The 40,000 chickens at the Miyazaki farm will be slaughtered and buried, while exports in a 3 km (1.8 mile) radius around the farm will be restricted. Read More

Poultry source for New Zealand’s Campylobacteriosis cases

International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020 30 November, 2020 Following an initial reduction in human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand after the implementation of poultry food chain-focused interventions during 2006–2008, further decline has been relatively small.
A report funded by the Ministry for Primary Industries in New Zealand, claims that despite improvements made in poultry regulation, Campylobacteriosis was the most notified enteric disease reported in the country.
Most cases (84%) were infected with strains attributed to a poultry source, while 14% were attributed to a cattle source. Read More

Salmonella infantis a new emergent clone

Tyson et al (2020) Microbial Drug Resistance 29 November, 2020 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis has been among the top 10 serotypes causing human illness in the United States every year since 2010. Recently, there have been reports worldwide of a multidrug-resistant, emergent Salmonella Infantis (ESI) clone with a large megaplasmid (pESI), often containing the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-65. This clone also has a gyrA mutation conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, further limiting treatment options. In the United States, this clone has also been found in poultry sources, indicating a likely source of human illnesses. The ESI clone was first found in retail meats in Tennessee in 2014, but by 2019 was throughout the United States and comprised 29% of all Salmonella isolated from retail chickens, and 7% from retail turkey. Read More

South Korea: Avian influenza outbreak

29 November, 2020 South Korea on confirmed this year's first case of highly pathogenic avian influenza among domestic poultry at a duck farm in a southwestern province. The virus detected from ducks at a farm in Jeongeup, a North Jeolla Province city has been confirmed as the HPAI of the H5N8 strain.
It marked the first confirmed case of highly pathogenic AI detected among domestic poultry in the country this year. All other cases reported so far involved wild birds. Read More

UK: H5N8 confirmed on farm in North Yorkshire

29 November, 2020 Avian influenza of the H5N8 strain was confirmed at a turkey fattening premises near Northallerton on Saturday 28 November.
All 10,500 birds at the farm will be humanely culled to limit the spread of the disease. Read More

Belgium: H5N5 on a broiler farm

27 November, 2020 Belgium has reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N5 avian influenza on a poultry farm.
The outbreak occurred in the western town of Menen near the border with France. Read More

Japan avian influenza outbreak spreads

26 November, 2020 Avian influenza has been detected in a third Japanese prefecture. The disease was discovered at an egg farm in Awaji city in Hyogo prefecture west of Tokyo, which is near Kagawa prefecture.
The 146,000 chickens at the Hyogo farm will be slaughtered. Read More

Poland: H5N8 in a layer farm

26 November, 2020 Poland will cull over 900,000 hens in a farm in western Poland (Wolsztyn) due to an avian influenza outbreak. The H5N8 avian influenza outbreak in the village of Wroniawy is the 33rd one in Poland this year. Read More

Japan: Ninth case of highly pathogenic avian influenza

25 November, 2020 Japan has detected a new outbreak of avian influenza on a chicken farm in southwestern Fukuoka prefecture, in addition to the eight already reported in Kagawa prefecture west of Tokyo.
The wave of avian influenza that began earlier this month is proving to be the worst in around four years and the first serious spread of the virus in two years.
About 93,500 chickens on a farm in Munakata city in Fukuoka will be culled. In Kagawa prefecture more than 1.3 million chickens have been culled this month. Read More

Avian influenza outbreak at Melton's Twinlakes theme park

24 November, 2020 Avian influenza has been confirmed in a small number of poultry and captive birds at a Leicestershire theme park, near Melton Mowbray. Up to 175 poultry and captive birds will be culled. The strain involved is the HPAI H5N8. Read More

Netherlands: 190,000 birds to be culled due to HPAI

24 November, 2020 Dutch authorities have culled some 190,000 chickens after a HPAI broke out in at least two poultry farms.
Health workers slaughtered around 100,000 hens at a poultry farm at Hekendorp outside Gouda. Read More

France: Avian influenza in Yvelines

24 November, 2020 A second case of avian influenza was detected in France, in a pet store located in Yvelines (Ile-de-France), three days after the announcement of a first outbreak in Haute-Corse. The strain discovered in this new outbreak is the same as in Haute-Corse, and an epidemiological investigation has been launched in order to identify the links between these two foci and the origin of the contamination. Read More

Huvepharma introduces new Necrotic Enteritis vaccine

23 November, 2020 Huvepharma Inc. introduces AVERT™ NE, an innovative new vaccine to help control necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens Type A. AVERT™ NE utilizes proprietary and unique recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) technology from Curtiss Healthcare, Inc. as the delivery platform to elicit an immune response to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis (NE).
“AVERT™NE is the first live vaccine that can be mass administered for the control of NE to be licensed in the US.” said Glen Wilkinson, president of Huvepharma US. “With the majority of US broilers being grown in antibiotic-free production, controlling NE has become a significant challenge for poultry producers. Given this, Huvepharma recognized the potential from the Curtiss Healthcare RASV technology as a preventive solution that could replace and or complement current alternatives that aid in the control of NE. Read More

Italy: H5 LPAI

23 November, 2020 On 18 November, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed the serological positivity for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 in a grower farm in the province of Pavia (Lombardy Region). At the time of confirmation, the farm hosted around 11,000 birds (Gallus gallus and ducks). No clinical symptoms or increased mortality were reported, and the positivity emerged following the routinely sampling forseen by the national surveillance plan in this area. Read More

Canada: Eggs recalled due to Salmonella

22 November, 2020 Les Oeufs Richard Eggs Inc. is recalling eggs from the marketplace due to possible Salmonella contamination.
Consumers should not consume and distributors, retailers and food service establishments such as hotels, restaurants, cafeterias, hospitals, and nursing homes should not serve, sell, or use the recalled products. Code Q29. Read More

Heat treatment to combat the Poultry Red Mite

Veterinary Parasitology 288 (2020) 22 November, 2020 A new study examines the effects of heating laying hen houses between consecutive laying cycles on the survival of the poultry red mite (PRM) Dermanyssus gallinae.
During the period between consecutive laying cycles, when no hens are present in the layer house, the PRM population can be reduced drastically. Heating a layer house to temperatures above 45 °C for several days in order to kill PRM has been applied in Europe. The effect of such a heat treatment on the survival of PRM adults, nymphs and eggs, however, is largely unknown. Read More

Italy: HPAI in wild birds

21 November, 2020 As of 20 November 2020, the Italian Veterinary Authorities confirmed the positivity to the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of subtype H5 in cloacal, oropharyngeal and feather swabs from wild birds shot in hunting areas in the Veneto Region. Read More

Avian influenza virus is spreading in Europe

EFSA 21 November, 2020 Since 16 October 2020, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been reported in several EU/EEA countries – Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Sweden as well as in the United Kingdom. As of 19 November, 302 HPAI A(H5) detections have been reported, with the majority of the detections referring to wild birds (n=281), and a few related to outbreaks in poultry (n=18) and captive birds (n=3). Most of the detections in wild birds were in wild waterbirds, being barnacle goose the most affected species (n=110), followed by greylag goose (n=47), Eurasian wigeon (n=32), mallard (n=14), and common buzzard (n=13).
Three HPAI virus subtypes were identified, A(H5N8), A(H5N5) and A(H5N1), with A(H5N8) being the most reported subtype (n=284). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the viruses evolved from a single progenitor virus that went through multiple reassortment events. Read More

Two more avian influenza cases in Japan

20 November, 2020 Japan's Kagawa prefecture will cull 850,000 chickens at two poultry farms after the country detected an avian influenza outbreak earlier this month. These will be the sixth and seventh cases of the avian influenza in western Kagawa prefecture.
Chickens at the two farms in Mitoyo city tested positive in a preliminary examination for avian influenza, after the farms had notified the prefectural government of an increase in the number of dead chickens. Read More

H5N2 LPAI in Webster County, Missuri - USA

20 November, 2020 USA reported an outbreak of H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in a backyard duck layer flock in Webster County, Missouri, USA. Read More

Croatia: HPAI in Koprivnica-Križevci County

19 November, 2020 On 18 November 2020, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 strain was detected on a turkey farm in Delovi, Koprivnica-Križevci County. The holding involved is a commercial poultry farm where approximately 65,000 fattening turkeys were kept. Read More

Sweden: HPAI on a turkey farm

19 November, 2020 Sweden has culled 3,300 turkeys after detecting avian influenza virus.
The disease, found in the southern Swedish region of Skane. Read More

Germany: another farm infected with HPAI

18 November, 2020 Avian influenza has been found on another chicken farm in Germany and up to 70,000 poultry will be culled. The strain HPAI H5N8 was diagnosed in a farm near Rostock in the eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Read More

Denmark: HPAI on a poultry farm

17 November, 2020 Thousands of chickens will be culled in Denmark due to avian influenza outbreak. 25,000 chickens (commercial layers) to be culled after finding H5N8 HPAI on a farm. The farm is located near the city of Randers on the Island of East Jutland. Read More

France: Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Corsica

17 November, 2020 France has detected a highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza in a pet store in Haute-Corse.
All the birds in the shop have been euthanised. The strain was identifies as H5N8.
Specific measures to monitor and limit movement around the Haute-Corse outbreak were put in place immediately to prevent any spread. Protective measures are also taken with suppliers and buyers linked to the Corsica home. Read More

Northern Ireland: H5N8 in swan

16 November, 2020 The H5N8 strain of the virus was confirmed after tests on the dead bird found at Lough Beg near Toomebridge.
This detection in Northern Ireland is not surprising as there have been two recent confirmed cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry in Great Britain. Read More

Belgium: HPAI in wild birds

15 November, 2020 On November 13, an animal rescue center in Ostend, on the Belgian seaside, received three sick wild birds from separate coastal places, which proved positive for HPAI H5N8. These separate infections suggest that HPAI may be widespread amongst wild birds as many migrating birds from HPAI infected areas are flying over Belgium. Read More

Main zoonoses in the Netherlands - 2019

14 November, 2020 Salmonellosis- major serotypes isolated from humans during 2019 were:
Salmonella enteritidis 354 (35%), S. Typhimurium 121 (12%) and Monophasic Typhimurium 129 (13%). In 2019, the 1,002 Salmonella isolates submitted from patients in the Netherlands was slightly higher than 977 in 2017 and 952 in 2018. The number of lab-confirmed cases is estimated at 1,566. Read More

Denmark: H5N8 in wild birds

14 November, 2020 Hundreds of wild birds have been found dead in south-Jutland and the suspect is the H5N8 avian influenza strain. The nature agency, Naturstyrelsen, revealed that samples from four barnacle geese and one hooded seagull have tested positive for H5N8. Read More

Japan: 3rd avian infkuenza outbreak

13 November, 2020 The Kagawa prefectural government said that avian influenza cases have been confirmed at a poultry farm in the western Japan prefecture, this year’s third avian influenza outbreak at a Japanese farm.
The virus is believed to be a highly pathogenic strain. Read More

H5N5 in Germany

12 November, 2020 Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N5 strain has been reported in backyard poultry farm in Zingst, Vorpommern-Rügen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern - Germany.
All poultry have been culled (54 chickens, 10 geese, 3 ducks) and safely disposed of (except 100 pigeons). Restriction zones have been established. Read More

UK: Third avian influenza outbreak

12 November, 2020 A third case of avian influenza H5N8 has been detected in broiler breeder near Leominster in Herefordshire. Authorities say they are taking “immediate and robust action” after the H5N8 strain was found in Herefordshire and Cheshire- with H5N2 being confirmed in Kent. The following 3 cases of avian influenza in poultry or other captive birds have now been confirmed:
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 was confirmed on the 10 November in broiler breeder chickens at a premises near Leominster, in Herefordshire. Read More

Germany: second outbreak of avian influenza

10 November, 2020 Avian influenza H5N8 has been confirmed in another poultry farm in north Germany. The case was found on a small chicken farm in the Kreis Segeberg area the northern state of Schweswig-Holstein. Read More

The Netherlands: H5N1 in wild birds

10 November, 2020 On October 16th living anas penelope (eurasian wigeon) were sampled in a duck decoy (in Hippolytishoef) for scientific research, four (4) of the anas penelope (eurasian wigeon) were tested positive for H5N1 on 27 October at a National Reference Laboratory.
On October 18th A Greylag Goose: Anser anser (Anatidae) was found dead in a wetland (Purmerend). Read More

H5N8 in Ireland

10 November, 2020 The Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine today announced that it has confirmed avian influenza subtype H5N8 in a wild bird in County Limerick. Read More

UK: First report oh H5N8 in wild birds

9 November, 2020 First report of HPAI H5N8 in wild birds in the UK at a site in Gloucestershire. Five wild birds (a greylag goose and four Canada geese) were found dead on 03 November. As these are considered to be native, sedentary species, they must have been infected by other species of migratory birds. Read More

Japan: second outbreak of avian influenza

8 November, 2020 Another avian influenza case has been confirmed at a poultry farm in Kagawa Prefecture, marking the country’s second outbreak of avian influenza at a farm this year.
The virus is believed to be a highly pathogenic strain. About 48,000 chickens being raised at the farm in the city of Higashikagawa will be culled. The prefectural government instructed three poultry farms within 3 kilometers of the affected facility not to transfer their chickens and eggs, while nine farms within 3 to 10 kilometers were told not to move their chickens and eggs outside the 10-kilometer zone. Read More

Denmark: HPAI H5N5 In Peregrine Falcon

6 November, 2020 A peregrine falcon, which was found dead near Sakskøbing on Lolland, has been found to be infected with the HPAI H5N5. Read More

Germany: H5N8 in poultry farm

6 November, 2020 Avian influenza H5N8 has been found on a poultry farm in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, after it has already spread among the wild bird population in the region. German public broadcaster NDR says more than 1,000 dead wild birds - mainly geese and ducks - have been found on the Nordfriesland coast, most likely infected with avian influenza virus. Read More

Japan: Avian influenza

5 November, 2020 On November 5, Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries confirmed a detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial layer flock in Mitoyo City, Kagawa Prefecture.
Approximately 330,000 chickens will be culled as a result. Japan last detected HPAI in commercial
chickens in January 2018. Read More

UK: avian influenza at Cheshire farm

3 November, 2020 The H5N8 strain of avian influenza was detected at a broiler breeders premises in Frodsham in Cheshire , the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) said. Read More

Israel: More H5N8 outbreaks

2 November, 2020 Israel reports 4 more cases of avian influenza in commercial farms:
Oct 29: an outbreak in Kibbutz Gvat, broiler breeders, 62 wks old, 22,000 birds.
Oct 30: an outbreak in Kibbutz Sluhot, meat turkeys, 16.5 wks old, 21,000 birds. Read More

UK: LPAI in Kent

2 November, 2020 A small poultry farm near Deal, Dover District in Kent has been ordered by the government to slaughter a flock of birds after the discovery of H5N2 low-pathogenic avian influenza. Read More

Germany: avian influenza in wild birds

1 November, 2020 The Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) informs that avian influenza has been detected in a wild duck in Hamburg, a common buzzard in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and various wild birds in Schleswig-Holstein. The strains involved are H5N8 and H5N5. The competent authorities of the federal states are now called to closely monitor the situation and to intensify monitoring measures with regard to dead or sick wild birds. Read More

Japan: HPAI in wild bird droppings in Hokkaido

1 November, 2020 As a result of inspection by Hokkaido University, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8 subtype) was detected in wild duck droppings collected in Monbetsu City, Hokkaido on October 24. Read More

South Korea: Reports 2nd case of HPAI

29 October, 2020 The Environment Ministry said the virulent bird flu strain of H5N8 was detected in a fecal sample collected from wild birds on Saturday at a stream in Yongin, some 50 kilometers south of Seoul. Read More

The Netherlands: H5N8 in broiler breeders

29 October, 2020 After previously identifying highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in wild birds, the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality has confirmed a finding on a commercial poultry farm in Altforst, about 20 miles south from the main poultry production region in the Netherlands. The birds at this farm will be culled, and transport restrictions are imposed in a radius of roughly six miles around the farm. The Netherlands previously experienced HPAI outbreaks in its commercial flock in 2003, 2014, 2016 and 2017. Read More

Russia reports more H5N8 cases

28 October, 2020 The Russian Authorities are reporting multiple outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8. The cases were reported in poultry and wild birds.
H5N8 outbreaks were reported in the southwest of the country. One in the Republic of Tatarstan began on Sep 30 in backyard birds. Read More

UK: Salmonella in Lion Eggs

28 October, 2020 The Food Standards Agency (FSA) has issued advice on certain batches of eggs. The products that could pose a risk to consumers are sold in Asda, Sainsbury's and Aldi.
A post on the FSA website stated: "The FSA is issuing precautionary advice to consumers who have purchased a specific batch of British Lion eggs which may be contaminated with salmonella. Read More

South Korea: Avian influenza outbreak

25 October, 2020 A highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) case was reported in South Korea. The first highly pathogenic avian influenza case in 32 months. The strain involved is a H5N8 and it was discovered from a fecal sample collected from wild birds in Cheonan, ~90 kilometers south of Seoul. Read More

H5N8 avian influenza in The Netherlands

22 October, 2020 Highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza was diagnosed in two dead mute swans (Cygnus olor).
The two swans entered were part of a group of six swans that were found dead in the Netherlands, near Kockengen (Utrecht).
The mute swans were submitted for diagnostic testing as part of the wild bird surveillance program for avian influenza virus. The HA cleavage site PLREKRRKR*GLF showed polybasic properties characteristic of highly pathogenic viruses. Read More

Israel: Two more cases of H5N8

18 October, 2020 A case of H5N8 in a Black Swan was diagnosed at the National Park in Ramat Gan (Central Israel). Read More

UK: Salmonellosis caused by S. Enteritidis linked to breaded chicken products

17 October, 2020 The Food Standards Agency and Public Health England are reminding people to take care when handling and cooking frozen raw breaded chicken products at home, such as nuggets, goujons, dippers, poppers and kievs. This comes after a rise in cases of two particular strains of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to frozen raw breaded processed chicken products. Two product recalls have been undertaken. Read More

Israel: Third H5N8 outbreak

15 October, 2020 Israel reports a third case of avian influenza H5N8 in a turkey farm at Revadim (Southern Israel). 19,000 birds will be culled. Read More

Israel: H5N8 in a Zoo

14 October, 2020 H5N8 virus was confirmed in black swans at Jerusalem Biblical Zoo. 5 dead birds were found.
Mute swans and other water fowls were not affected. Read More

Israel: H5N8 in a broiler breeder farm

13 October, 2020 A broiler breeder farm with 35,000 birds in Metzer (Near Ma'anit- Central Israel) has been diagnosed with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8. Read More

USA: A(H7N3) virus in turkeys in North and South Carolina

Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 26, Number 12 - December 2020 10 October, 2020 In March 2020, an outbreak of LPAIV H7N3 occurred in turkey farms, affecting 11 premises in North Carolina and 1 in South Carolina, USA. The initial decision to depopulate LPAIV-affected flocks was based on a risk assessment that included the location of affected premises, the poultry density in the area, and the presence of a basic amino acid substitution at the cleavage site among the initial LPAIV detections (PEKPKTR/GLF). During the ongoing response for this event, the Clemson Veterinary Diagnostic Center in Columbia, South Carolina, detected an influenza A(H7) outbreak in a second turkey location in South Carolina, with increased death and respiratory signs. On April 8, the National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed 1 of 6 pooled samples as HPAIV H7N3. Read More

Canada: massive egg recall

10 October, 2020 Hilly Acres Farm is recalling eggs from the marketplace due to possible Salmonella contamination. This recall was triggered by the company test results.
The CFIA is conducting a food safety investigation, which may lead to the recall of other products. The recall affects markets in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. They include brands like Farmer John Eyking, Compliments, no name, Great Value, and Maritime Pride. Read More

Newcastle disease genotype VII in West-Europe

Transbound Emerg Dis . 2020 Oct 3 5 October, 2020 After two decades free of Newcastle disease, Belgium encountered a velogenic avian orthoavulavirus type 1 epizootic in 2018.
In Belgium, 20 cases were diagnosed, of which 15 occurred in hobby flocks, 2 in professional poultry flocks and 3 in poultry retailers. The disease also disseminated from Belgium toward the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg by trade. Independently, the virus was detected once in the Netherlands, almost simultaneously to the first Belgian detection. As such Newcastle disease emerged in the entire BeNeLux-region. Read More

Vaccination strategies to control avian influenza

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 184 (2020) 105129 3 October, 2020 A new research evaluate the potential efficiency of different vaccination strategies that could be applied against Avian Influenza (AI) in France.
The study found that vaccination at hatchery and farm level enabled protective immunity levels for the control of AI, but higher poultry population immunity level was reached using hatchery vaccination. The study also showed that hatchery vaccination was more efficient (higher benefit-cost ratio) than farm vaccination. Sufficient and homogeneously spatially distributed protective levels were reached in the overall poultry population with vaccination strategies targeting breeders, chicken layers and broilers and turkeys, without the need to include ducks and guinea fowls. However, vaccination strategies involving the highest number of species and production types were the most efficient in terms of cost-benefit. Read More

Australia: Annual food testing report 2018-2019

1 October, 2020 Raw poultry verification program: The raw poultry verification program gathers ongoing data on the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw poultry. Samples of raw poultry were collected from processing facilities and retailers in NSW and tested for Campylobacter and Salmonella. Between July 2018 and June 2019, a total of 196 whole chickens and chicken portions were collected from processing plants and 312 chicken portions were collected from retail outlets. Fourteen samples collected from retailers were not included in the data analysis due to loss of temperature control during transportation. At the processing plants, Salmonella was detected in 21.4% of samples and Campylobacter was detected in 86.7% of samples. At retail, 25.8% of samples tested positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter was detected in 89.9% of samples. Read More

Avian influenza in Europe - overview

EFSA 1 October, 2020 Between 16 May and 15 August 2020, seven highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus outbreaks were reported in Europe in poultry, with one outbreak reported in Bulgaria (n=1) and six in Hungary (n=6) and one low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H5N3) virus outbreak was reported in poultry in Italy. All six outbreaks detected in Hungary were secondary outbreaks and seem to be the tail end of the HPAI A(H5N8) epidemic that was observed in poultry over the winter and spring in central Europe from December 2019 (n=334). Genetic analysis of the HPAI A(H5N8) viruses isolated during this reporting period from Bulgaria and Hungary did not identify any major changes compared to the viruses collected in the respective countries during the first months of 2020. Read More

The Netherlands: The prevalence of selected pathogens in chickens for meat production

25 September, 2020 In 2018 and 2019 the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu] (RIVM) and the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority [Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit] (NVWA) investigated how often some of these pathogens occurred in broilers. The study involved broilers at 198 farms as well as 132 livestock farmers, family members and employees. RIVM assessed whether the same pathogens also occurred in these persons. Of the pathogens investigated, ESBL-producing bacteria were found most often, namely in the broilers on 36% of the farms. Among livestock farmers and family members, these bacteria were found in 7% of participants. This is comparable to the percentage in the general Dutch population. Campylobacter was found on 32% of broiler farms. Read More

Avian influenza in Kazakhstan

21 September, 2020 Outbreaks of avian influenza have been recorded in Kazakhstan. Seven outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) were diagnosed in backyards and villages in the northern part of the country near the Russian border. Read More

USDA Releases Roadmap to Address Salmonella

19 September, 2020 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Food Safety (OFS) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) have released a plan to decrease Salmonella, one of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses. The Roadmap to Reducing Salmonella: Driving Change through Science-Based Policy outlines programs and policies that are science-based, data-driven, and promote innovation to reduce Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products. Read More

Campylobacter in Denmark in 2019

Source: Annual report on zoonoses in Denmark 2019 4 September, 2020 For the third year in a row, the number of human cases with Campylobacter infections continued to increase. However in 2019 the increase was larger than previously seen (18.5%), with 5,389 cases compared to 4,546 cases in 2018.
The large increase in campylobacter cases is due to an unusually large outbreak related to Danish chicken meat. Almost one third of all patients have a campylobacter infection that can be attributed to chicken meat. Read More

Salmonella in Denmark in 2019

Source: Annual report on zoonoses in Denmark 2019 4 September, 2020 Human infections with Salmonella remain at a level comparable to previous years with 1,120 cases in 2019, and 1,168 and 1,067 cases in 2018 and 2017, respectively.
S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium including the monophasic variant (S. 4,[5],12:i:-) continue to be the most common serotypes with 310 and 272 cases. Nine national Salmonella outbreaks were registered. Three of them were caused by S. 4,[5],12:i:- and in two of these outbreaks Danish produced pork meat was the source. The third outbreak was the largest Salmonella outbreak in 2019 with 57 patients. This outbreak was related to an international investigation with more than 200 registered cases from 2018 to 2019 with a WGS profile that was very similar to the one reported for the Danish outbreak. However the suspected food vehicle for the international cluster of cases was pork meat products and the suspected source in the Danish outbreak was Danish produced minced beef meat. Read More

Australia: Avian influenza detected at emu farm near Kerang

27 August, 2020 An egg farm with 37,000 birds in the Golden Plains Shire and an emu farm near Kerang have been confirmed as the latest properties with cases of avian influenza.
The Golden Plains egg farm has been placed under quarantine after being confirmed as having high pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza. The two detections bring the total number of affected farms to six since the first case on July 31.
The emu farm near Kerang reported sick birds to Agriculture Victoria and subsequent testing has confirmed low pathogenic H7N6 avian influenza. Read More

Russia: Avian influenza H5

27 August, 2020 Three outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza has been reported in village and backyard poultry in Omsk Oblast, located in southwest Siberia - Russia. Read More

Australia: 2 Outbreaks of LPAI H5N2

12 August, 2020 After two outbreaks of avian influenza H7N7 the increased surveillance in the region, revealed two more farms with another avian influenza strain - low path (LPAI) H5N2.
One farm is in Lethbridge, near the original H7N7 outbreak, while the other is in Bairnsdale, Victoria. Read More

2nd farm in Australia hit by avian influenza

7 August, 2020 Following a farm testing positive for H7N7 avian influenza virus on 31 July, a second egg farm near Lethbridge has now also tested positive. The farm is within the existing Restricted Area and has been under movement restrictions and regular surveillance which has enabled rapid identification and containment of the disease. Read More

Lidl Netherlands is carrying out a recall due to Salmonella

7 August, 2020 Lidl Netherlands recalls the 'Whole free-range chicken natural' from the PiqueBroche brand.
This concerns the free-range chicken with a best-before date of 10 August 2020. Read More

RTE poultry products recalled due to Salmonella contamination

7 August, 2020 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a public health alert for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products containing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated onions that have been recalled by Thomson International Inc. due to concerns that the products may be contaminated with Salmonella Newport.
FSIS is issuing this public health alert out of the utmost of caution to ensure that consumers are aware that these products, which bear the USDA mark of inspection, should not be consumed.
The RTE meat and poultry items were produced by Taylor Farms on July 30 and 31, 2020. Read More

Mass poisoning in Jordan

6 August, 2020 The Jordanian Ministry of Health announced the death of a five year-old child and a forty-year-old man, after more than 700 people were infected after eating contaminated shawarma from a restaurant in Ain al-Basha (north-west Amman).
Laboratory tests revealed the presence of bacterial contamination in meat and chicken shawarma (Enterococcus and Campylobacter).
The restaurant was immediately shut down following investigations. Read More

Russia: H5N8 in backyard poultry

5 August, 2020 Avian influenza H5N8 (HPAI) was discovered in the Chelyabinsk region. The outbreak of avian influenza in the South Urals was set up in the laboratory of the Uvelsky district.
Carcasses of birds (wild duck and two domestic geese) were found at the shores of Peschanoe and Tabinsha lakes in the Uvelsky district. Read More

Bread Spread recalls 21 chicken sandwich products

4 August, 2020 Bread Spread Ltd (a London-based sandwich maker) is taking the precautionary step of recalling all sandwiches, wraps, rolls and baguettes containing chicken because Listeria monocytogenes has been found in the chicken filling product. Read More

The pathogenicity of the TW I-type IBV in layers

Zhang et al. Vet Res (2020) 51:95 3 August, 2020 Long-term effects of TW I-type IBV on the quantity and quality of eggs when infection occurs at a very young age in chickens was studied by Chinese researchers.
The researchers evaluated the pathogenicity of the TW I-type IBV strain in SPF chickens infected at one-day-old, for a period of 200 days. The aim of the study was to comprehensively reveal the pathogenicity of TW I-type IBV, particularly regarding the long-term impact on egg production.
The TW I-type infectious bronchitis virus is the second most common genotype of IBV in China. Read More

Comparison of foodborne disease rates between countries

1 August, 2020 Foodborne disease presents a continuous threat to public health, with a significant economic impact on communities in the UK and worldwide. Estimating the true incidence of foodborne infectious intestinal disease (IID) has proven challenging. Established surveillance systems are vulnerable to under-diagnosis of infections causing mild illness, as cases may not present to healthcare. Under-reporting of infections occur when specimens are not submitted for testing, or test results are not reported. In terms of trade and global health, it is important to understand and compare incidence of foodborne IID in different countries.
Methodologies have been developed and adapted that attempt to estimate pathogen-specific incidence of foodborne IID within countries, using data from multiple sources. Read More

Outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to backyard poultry

Source: CDC 1 August, 2020 As of July 28, 2020, 938 people infected with one of the outbreak strains of Salmonella have been reported from 48 states part of at least 15 multistate outbreaks tied to backyard birds, according to an update from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Among people the CDC has information for, 151 people have been hospitalized, and one death has been recorded in Oklahoma. Approximately 28% of ill people are children younger than 5 years.
Illnesses started on dates from Jan 14 to Jul 14. Ill people range in age from less than 1 year to 94 years, with a median age of 32. Read More

Australia: Avian Influenza on Western Victorian farm

1 August, 2020 Avian influenza has been detected at a free-range egg farm (43,000 birds) near Lethbridge, in the state of Victoria.
The strain involved in the outbreak is H7N7 (HPAI). Read More

Philippines: avian influenza outbreak in Pampanga

29 July, 2020 Philippines notified the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) of an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza (HPAI) at a farm in San Carlos, San Luis, Pampanga in Central Luzon. Workers at the commercial layer poultry farm noticed a sudden drop in egg production, bluish discoloration of the comb, white nasal discharge, death within 12 hours at the onset of clinical signs.
Nearly 39,000 birds had to be culled. Read More

UK: 180 deaths per year caused by foodborne diseases

BMJ Open Gastroenterology 15 July, 2020 Researchers have estimated there are 180 deaths per year in the United Kingdom caused by foodborne diseases from 11 pathogens. The study publihed in BMJ Open Gastroenterology, provides updated estimates of deaths for each of the 11 key foodborne pathogens considered; in total, these 11 pathogens cause 180 deaths per year in the UK: Foodborne norovirus is estimated to cause 56 deaths per year, foodborne Salmonella 33 deaths, foodborne Listeria monocytogenes 26 deaths and and foodborne Campylobacter 21 deaths. Campylobacter, C. perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Norovirus pathogens are responsible for over 98% of these deaths. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) estimates that about 2.4 million cases of foodborne illness occur every year in the UK. Read More

Salmonella outbreak linked to Lion Eggs

10 July, 2020 38 people are part of a Salmonella outbreak traced to eggs from the United Kingdom as reported by Food Safety News.
On May, 20, 2020, eggs from Lion Code flocks which had been identified as possibly containing Salmonella enteritidis were exported to the Netherlands for pasteurization. There have been 38 reported cases linked to this incident through analysis of whole genome sequencing data. Cases range in age from 6 months to 85 years; 19 are female and 19 are male. Two cases having been hospitalized. Read More

Australia: National warning on backyard chickens after salmonella outbreaks

10 July, 2020 The Australian Food Safety Information Council issued a national warning to people with backyard chickens to always wash their hands after handling the chickens or their eggs following salmonellosis outbreaks in Victoria and Queensland.
A recent salmonellosis outbreak in Queensland affected 17 people including 13 children under 11 years, 5 of whom were hospitalised. In Victoria there were 9 cases of Salmonella Enteriditis, 5 of which were linked to newly purchased chicks. Read More

USA: COVID-19 among meat and poultry processing workers

MMWR, July 7, 2020 7 July, 2020 Among 23 states reporting COVID-19 outbreaks in meat and poultry processing facilities, 16,233 cases in 239 facilities occurred, including 86 (0.5%) COVID-19 - related deaths. Among cases with
race/ethnicity reported, 87% occurred among racial or ethnic minorities. Commonly implemented interventions included worker screening, source control measures (universal face coverings),
engineering controls (physical barriers), and infection prevention measures (additional hand hygiene stations). Read More

Avian Influenza (H3N1) virus involved in outbreak, Belgium, 2019

EID: Vol. 26 No. 8- Aug 2020 4 July, 2020 In January 2019, H3N1 virus was isolated from an outdoor laying hens farm in Belgium. The affected flock was culled, but 3 months later (April), H3N1 virus was again detected on this farm. Since then, 82 holdings in northwestern Belgium were infected with H3N1 virus in a 16-week period, involving different poultry species and types of farms (Layers, Broilers, Broiler breeders, Light layer breeders, Turkeys, Quails and Ostriches). In France, 3 farms were H3N1-positive; 2 showed a direct link with a company from the affected area of Belgium.
The clinical picture in the field started mostly with discolored eggs for laying hens and breeders, followed by an increased mortality rate of up to 60% in breeder hens and 40% in laying hens. In addition, a marked egg drop, up to 100%, was reported. For the virus strain isolated in April from poultry on the index farm (A/Gallus gallus/Belgium/3497_0001/2019), the IVPI was 0.13. Read More

Newcastle disease and rooster fertility

Veterinary Research 2020 51:84 2 July, 2020 A group of Chinese researchers found that Newcastle disease virus replicates in the male reproductive system of chickens and induces severe inflammatory response and histological lesions in the testes, which decrease steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Read More

A vaccine approach to prevent infection caused by Campylobacter

Science Advances 24 Jun 2020 27 June, 2020 Campylobacter jejuni is among the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen and humans are most often infected by consumption of contaminated poultry, water, or raw milk. In addition to acute diarrhea, C. jejuni is associated with a number of post infectious serious sequelae, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The molecular basis for the association of C. jejuni with GBS is recognized to be due to the mimicry between lipooligosaccharide (LOS) chains of most C.jejuni strains, such that antibodies directed toward LOS cross react with human peripheral nerves. The association of C. jejuni with GBS poses special problems to vaccine development. The use of any whole cell vaccine approach, although originally evaluated, is precluded due to safety concerns. Similarly, the standard phase 2B challenge that is generally done to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines cannot be performed with C. jejuni strains expressing ganglioside mimics. However, despit Read More

Salmonella linked to backyard chickens in Australia

27 June, 2020 The The Victorian Department of Health and Human Services is investigating 9 cases of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. These cases became sick between late April to the end of May. Read More

LPAI in Italy

24 June, 2020 A H7N1 low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks occurred in mid April at two commercial turkey farms in Veneto region. 14,300 birds were culled. Read More

Salmonella and Campylobacter in broiler meat in the USA

Foods 2020, 9, 776 18 June, 2020 Poultry is one of the largest sources of animal-based protein in the United States. Two of the most persistent bacteria in poultry processing are Salmonella and Campylobacter. One of the primary causes of foodborne illnesses in the United States is Salmonella, a bacterium commonly found in the digestive tract of infected chickens. Every year, roughly 1.35 million cases of salmonellosis, an infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella, which commonly causes diarrhea and fever, are reported in the United States. Globally, it is estimated that 93.8 million cases are caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella every year. Of these cases, 80.3 million are estimated to be foodborne. Contaminated poultry meat is one of the largest contributors to salmonellosis with some studies suggesting that poultry is associated with 25% of outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens. Read More

Ireland: Low pathogenic avian influenza H6N1

4 June, 2020 The Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine has confirmed Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) of the H6N1 subtype in 4 poultry flocks in County Monaghan. The last case was confirmed LPAI H6N1 on the 03/06/2020. This brings the total number of LPAI H6N1 outbreaks to 13.
The confirmed flocks include 11 table egg layer flocks and 2 fattening turkey flocks. Presenting clinical signs in affected flocks have included: Significant drop in egg production, reduced feed intake, slight increase in mortality.
All 13 holdings have been derestricted under the Avian Influenza Legislation as the H6N1 subtype is not included in the definition of a notifiable avian influenza at EU level. Read More

Salmonella Hadar infections linked to backyard poultry

21 May, 2020 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and public health officials in several states report investigating an outbreak of Salmonella infections linked to contact with live poultry, such as chicks and ducklings, in backyard flocks.A total of 46 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Hadar were reported from 11 states.
13 ill persons were hospitalized. No deaths were reported. 30% of ill persons were children 10 years of age or younger. Read More

H5N8 in Iraq

21 May, 2020 H5N8 outbreak, occurred at a commercial poultry farm in Nineveh, located on the outskirts of Mosul in the north. The event began on May 9, killing 21,700 of 59,700 birds. Read More

New York and California legislation would ban live animal markets

11 May, 2020 Legislators in California and New York have announced plans to ban live animal markets in their respective states.
A new bill, introduced by Assembly Member Linda B. Rosenthal, would immediately prohibit the operation of live animal markets in New York, effectively suspending current live markets’ operations and preventing further licenses for such markets from being issued.
Zoonotic diseases account for 75 per cent of emerging infectious diseases. Read More

Poland, poultry and salmonella

9 May, 2020 A series of reports from RASFF:
Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium (present /25g) in chilled turkey meat from Poland in Poland.
Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (presence /25g) in chilled chicken breasts from Poland in Slovakia.
Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (presence /25g) in chilled chicken quarters from Poland in Slovakia.
Salmonella enterica ser. Infantis (presence /25g) in frozen chicken legs from Poland in Lithuania
Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (in 2 out of 5 samples /25g) in chilled chicken wings from Poland in Lithuania.
Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (presence /25g) in chilled chicken quarters from Poland in Lithuania.
Salmonella enterica ser. Newport (3 out of 5 samples /50g) in frozen chicken breast fillets from Poland in Romania. Read More

France – Product recall: Matines brand eggs – Salmonella

7 May, 2020 Numerous batches of eggs sold under different brands in which the presence of salmonella has been detected are recalled. The egg brands Auchan and Carrefour are being recalled in France due to Salmonella contamination.
Société Matines recalls Netto brand Matines brand and Marque neutre brand shell eggs, Carrefour recalls Marque blanche brand shell eggs and Arradoy recalls Arradoy brand large shell eggs. Read More

Hungary: H5N8 Update

6 May, 2020 The Hungarian Veterinary Authorities confirmed a new outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the subtype H5N8 in domestic poultry. The holding involved, housing 11,138 fattening turkeys at the time of confirmation, was located in Békés County, the third county from the beginning of the current H5N8 epidemic in the Hungarian territory where the viral infection has been reported. Read More

EFSA: control options for Campylobacter in chickens

4 May, 2020 The 2011 EFSA opinion on Campylobacter was updated using more recent scientific data. The relative risk reduction in EU human campylobacteriosis attributable to broiler meat was estimated for on-farm control options using Population Attributable Fractions (PAF) for interventions that reduce Campylobacter flock prevalence, updating the modelling approach for interventions that reduce caecal concentrations and reviewing scientific literature. According to the PAF analyses calculated for six control options, the mean relative risk reductions that could be achieved by adoption of each of these six control options individually are estimated to be substantial but the width of the confidence intervals of all control options indicates a high degree of uncertainty in the specific risk reduction potentials. The updated model resulted in lower estimates of impact than the model used in the previous opinion. Read More

Incidence and trends of foodborne illnesses in the USA

May 1, MMWR 2 May, 2020 The incidence of enteric infections caused by eight pathogens including Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria, Shigella, Vibrio, and Yersinia reported by FoodNet sites in 2019 continued to increase or remained unchanged, compared with the previous 3 years, indicating progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the largest proportion of illnesses. Read More

Common chicken cooking techniques do not ensure inactivation of pathogens

PLOS ONE | April 29, 2020 2 May, 2020 Poultry meat is associated with the two pathogens ranked highest for health burden from food in Europe, Campylobacter and Salmonella. The contribution of the domestic setting to food borne illness is probably underestimated, but still about one third of the reported outbreaks in Europe occurred in the home setting in 2017. Among these, Salmonella was the dominating causative agent. Salmonella is introduced to European households through poultry meat occasionally and Campylobacter frequently and the safety at the consumer stage relies on kitchen practices. The results of a new study by researchers of the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research indicate that advice from experts is not fully adopted by consumers. Read More

LPAI in Italy

1 May, 2020 Italy has confirmed LPAI H7N1 in two commercial turkey farms with 7,150 birds in the Treviso region.
This is the first confirmation of H7N1 this year in Europe. Read More

LPAI in Irlenad and Northern Ireland

1 May, 2020 The Department of Agriculture in Ireland confirmed the presence of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) of the H6N1 subtype in ten flocks in Co Monaghan. Eight of the flocks are table egg laying flocks while a further two are turkey flocks. Culling of birds has occurred in the case of eight of the flocks to date - note this is a commercial decision on behalf of the flock owners. The authorities have confirmed that around 500,000 hens were culled following avian flu in Co Monaghan. The Irish Egg Association, says there will a shortfall of around 1.5 million eggs because of bird flu outbreak. As a result, the body which represents packers and producers in the industry says Ireland is likely to have to import eggs into the country. Read More

H5N8 in Hungary - Update

27 April, 2020 The Hungarian Veterinary Authorities confirmed 14 new cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the subtype H5N8 in domestic poultry. With the present update, the outbreaks confirmed in Hungary since the beginning of 2020 are 230. Read More

Avian Influenza in Europe: Update

18 April, 2020 Hungary: The Hungarian Veterinary Authorities confirmed 30 new cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the subtype H5N8 in domestic poultry. All the holdings involved are secondary outbreaks located in Kecskemét district, northern part of the Bács-Kiskun County, and in the bordering Csongrád County, where several farms have been reported positive to the same serotype in the preceding weeks. Read More

Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Infantis in Europe

Alba et al., Microbial Genomics 2020 10 April, 2020 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) was reported as the most frequent serovar in broilers flocks (45.6%) and broiler meat (50.6%) in Europe and its prevalence is increasing in breeding hens in some European Member States. In humans, S. Infantis has been classified as the fourth most prevalent serovar in non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) human infections in Europe.
A clone harbouring a conjugative plasmid of emerging S. Infantis (pESI)-like megaplasmid, carrying multidrug resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) genes, has spread in the Italian broiler chicken industry also causing human illness.
The European S. Infantis population appeared heterogeneous, with different genetic clusters defined at core-genome level. However, pESI-like variants present in 64.1% of the isolates were more genetically homogeneous and capable of infecting different clonal lineages in most of the countries. Two different pESI-like with ESBL genes (n=82)
were observed: bla Read More

HPAI in a turkey flock in South Carolina

10 April, 2020 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial turkey flock in Chesterfield County, South Carolina (34,160 birds). This is the first confirmed case of HPAI in commercial poultry in the United States since 2017. High mortality (1,583 of 34,160, 4.86%) was reported in the flock, along with respiratory signs and snicking.
The affected premises has an epidemiological link to another commercial poultry premises in South Carolina which previously reported LPAI H7N3 in mid-March, following outbreaks of the same strain in eleven turkey flocks in North Carolina. It is thought that the HPAI H7N3 virus emerged through mutation of the LPAI H7N3 strain found recently in the area. There have been reports of 12 cases of low pathogenic avian influenza in the United States in 2020. Eleven of those were in North Carolina while one was in South Carolina. Read More

Chickens are not susceptible to the novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2

First results of studies conducted at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut 9 April, 2020 Whether SARS-CoV-2 can also infect other animal species is being investigated by various research institutes worldwide. The Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) started infection studies in pigs, chickens, fruit bats, and ferrets several weeks ago. First results show that fruit bats and ferrets are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas pigs and chickens are not. The susceptibility of ferrets in particular is an important finding, as they could be used as model animals for human infection to test vaccines or drugs. Read More

A novel integron-borne aminoglycoside resistance gene

Microbiome 2020; 8: 41 29 March, 2020 Aminoglycoside antibiotics are critically important for treating several types of infections with multi-resistant bacteria. A completely new resistance gene, which is likely to counteract the newest aminoglycoside-drug plazomycin, was recently discovered by scientists in Gothenburg, Sweden.
The bacterial gene the team discovered in river sediment from India does not resemble any known antibiotic resistance gene. The gene is named gar as it provides resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics that carry a garosamine group (garosamine-specific aminoglycoside resistance) after its specificity. The gene occurs in three sequenced, multi-resistant clinical isolates (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one Luteimonas sp.) from Italy and China, respectively, as well as in two food-borne Salmonella enterica isolates from the USA. In all cases, gar has escaped discovery until now. Read More

Campylobacter and consumer knowledge in Germany

Henke et al. BMC Public Health (2020) 20:336 28 March, 2020 Via performing a cross-sectional survey of over 1,000 consumers in Germany, researchers analyzed consumer knowledge about Campylobacter, Salmonella and Toxoplasma. According to findings, nearly 70% of respondents had never heard of Campylobacter, about 20% had heard of Campylobacter but did not know how to protect themselves, and close to 12% knew how to protect themselves from Campylobacter infections. Just over half of respondents (52.2%) who had at least heard of Campylobacter knew that Campylobacter was transmissible via meat. Interestingly, consumer knowledge of Toxoplasma was better compared with that of Campylobacter, and respondents seemed to be most knowledgeable about Salmonella. Overall, consumers in Germany seemed to be poorly informed about Campylobacter and the transmission route via meat. Among the three pathogens, consumers were best informed about Salmonella. Read More

Additional turkey flocks with LPAI in North Carolina

Source: EGG‑ 27 March, 2020 According to a statutory submission to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Dr. Mark Davidson, Associate Administrator of the USDA-APHIS reported additional cases of H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza in asymptomatic turkey flocks on March 24th. The diagnoses were obtained as a result of surveillance implemented in the infected zone following recognition of the initial cases involving a parent flock and two grow-out flocks in Anson and Union Counties in North Carolina on March 13th.
As of March 24th eight flocks totaling 186,000 turkeys have been depleted with a range in farm population of 11,000 to 45,000. In addition to the two North Carolina counties a single flock of 36,000 turkeys in Chesterfield County, South Carolina was identified as being infected. Read More

Bayern-Ei stands for one of the worst food scandals in Germany

27 March, 2020 Stefan Pohlmann, was found guilty as the responsible manager of an egg production enterprise (Bayern-Ei) for a serious Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) outbreak in 2014. He was given a suspended prison sentence of one year and nine months. Stefan Pohlmann was in custody from August 2015 to May 2016. Stefan Pohlmann was found guilty of commercial fraud in 190 cases, negligent bodily harm in 26 cases and told to pay €350,000 ($375,000) and his company Bayern-Ei (‘Bavarian Egg’) was ordered to pay $1.27 million in compensation.
The Bayern-Ei company was one of the largest egg producers in Germany with four locations in Lower Bavaria and one in the Czech Republic. Read More

Avian Influenza in Europe

26 March, 2020 Hungary: Hungarian food safety authority Nébih said it detected avian influenza virus H5N8 at a duck farm in Bács-Kiskun County (South Hungary). Nébih said it had started to destroy the 32,000 ducks on the farm.
It has also established a 3km protection zone and a 10km surveillance zone around the site.
Nébih said the obligation to keep poultry in enclosed areas is still in force.
Avian Influenza was last detected in Hungary in January 2020. Read More

USA: H7N3 in three turkey flocks

17 March, 2020 As part of routine surveillance for H5/H7 Avian Influenza, H7 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) was detected in a commercial turkey breeder and two turkey meat flocks in Anson County, Anson, North Carolina. Total animal affected: 90,000 birds. Sequencing determined subtype/pathotype of H7N3 on all premises. Clinical signs noted: slight drop in egg production in turkey breeder flock. Plan for confirmed positive flocks is euthanasia (foam method) and disposal. The USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture are conducting a comprehensive epidemiological investigation and have implemented enhanced surveillance and testing related to this finding. Read More

Germany: H5N8 in poultry farm

16 March, 2020 A case of H5N8 avian influenza has been confirmed in a poultry farm in Bad Lausick near Leipzig (eastern German state of Saxony). All poultry on the farm has been slaughtered. Read More

Report: The burden of foodborne disease in the UK 2018

13 March, 2020 This Report contains the results of a five year programme to build a Cost of Illness (COI) model, which for the first time allows us to estimate the burden of foodborne illness in the UK. Over the last five years an extensive programme of work has been undertaken by the FSA economists, in collaboration with external experts and academics, to estimate the societal burden of foodborne illness in the UK. Working with academics from leading UK universities, the FSA economists have built a Cost of Illness (COI) model, whose objective is to identify and measure all the costs of a particular disease, including the direct, indirect, and intangible dimensions. The output, expressed in monetary terms, is an estimate of the total burden of foodborne illness to society. The COI analysis provides decision-makers with a perspective on the magnitude of the societal burden of a particular disease or condition. Read More

Ireland: Avian Influenza confirmed at poultry farm

12 March, 2020 A case of avian influenza has been confirmed at a farm in County Monaghan, Ireland.
According to the Department of Agriculture, a case of "avian influenza" has been identified in a commercial layer flock. The virus strain involved is a low pathogenic H6N1. Read More

Scotland: Campylobacter infections cost £3m a year

12 March, 2020 Food Standards Scotland (FSS) has published new research on Campylobacter - the most common cause of bacterial food poisoning in Scotland - which provides important new evidence on those at greater risk of infection, factors influencing severity of illness as well as the estimated healthcare cost of infection for the years 2013-2017.
The research, conducted between 2013 and 2019, was undertaken by Health Protection Scotland and the University of Aberdeen on behalf of FSS. Read More

New Zealand sets goal to reduce Campylobacter

10 March, 2020 Deputy director-general for New Zealand Food Safety Bryan Wilson announced a new goal to significantly reduce foodborne Campylobacter poisoning by 20 per cent by 2025. Campylobacter is the most common cause of notifiable foodborne illness in New Zealand.
Working with the poultry industry, New Zealand Food Safety's risk management strategy has achieved more than a 50% reduction in foodborne cases since 2006. But, the rate of gastrointestinal illness caused by campylobacter remains high. Read More

EFSA: Antimicrobial resistance in the EU

6 March, 2020 Salmonella and Campylobacter are becoming increasingly resistant to ciprofloxacin, one of the antibiotics of choice for treating infections caused by these bacteria. The conclusion is part of the latest report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonoses released by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which also presents some positive trends in the animal sector.
The latest data from humans, animals and food show that a large proportion of Salmonella bacteria are multidrug-resistant (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). In humans, resistance to ciprofloxacin is common, particularly in certain types of Salmonella, and resistance to high concentrations of ciprofloxacin increased overall from 1.7% (2016) to 4.6% (2018). Read More

More outbreaks of H5N8 in Poland

27 February, 2020 Poland has reported seven new HPAI H5N8 outbreaks on commercial farms. In the period February 7-22, more than 170,000 poultry were lost to the disease in these outbreaks, including 35,000 birds that died. Affected premises were spread across five provinces in central Poland, including the first cases in Opole and Lodz. Read More

Two new avian influenza outbreaks in Bulgaria

25 February, 2020 Bulgaria's food safety agency authorities reported two new outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza in the southern part of the Balkan country.One of the new outbreaks was found at a farm with more than 55,000 egg-laying hens in Trilistnik. The other outbreak was reported at a farm with more than 11,000 ducks in Padarsko. Read More

Czech republic: H5N8 avian influenza

18 February, 2020 Czech authorities will cull nearly 140,000 turkeys (7500) and broilers (130,000) at a poultry farm due to avian influenza H5N8 outbreak. Read More

Bulgaria: First avian influenza report for 2020

17 February, 2020 The Bulgarian Food Safety Agency (BFSA) has reported the first outbreak of avian influenza in Bulgaria for 2020. The avian influenza strain is the highly pathogenic H5N8 at a duck breeding farm in Rakovski near Plovdiv. Read More

Scotland: Salmonella annual surveillance report - 2019

12 February, 2020 During 2019, there were 756 isolates of human non-typhoidal Salmonella reported to Health Protection Scotland. This was in line with the 751 cases reported in 2018, which was a decrease on the 840 cases reported in 2017. Most isolates were reported during the summer months. There is an additional peak later in October which co-incides with the mid-term school break. This trend is consisent with previous years.
The two most commonly reported serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium which accounted for 58% of all Salmonella isolates reported in 2019. S. Enteritidis remains the most common serotype, with 297 (40%) reports. This was an increase of 8% on the 275 reported in 2018. Reports of Salmonella Typhimurium decreased very slightly in 2019, with 135 (18%) reports compared to 139 in 2018 - and compared to183 reported in 2017. Read More

Scotland: Campylobacter annual surveillance report - 2019

12 February, 2020 During 2019, 5975 laboratory reports of Campylobacter were received by HPS (Health Protection Scotland). This was a decrease when compared with 2018 (6096 reports) and an increase on 2017 (5795 reports), but within the annual variation observed over the past ten years.
The overall rate of Campylobacter in Scotland in 2019 was 109.9 reports per 100,000 population, compared with 112.1 reports per 100,000 population in 2018. Read More

Low pathogenic avian influenza confirmed in Scotland

11 February, 2020 Low pathogenic avian influenza (AI), has been confirmed in a Scottish free range laying flock.
In December, all 27,000 birds at a commercial poultry farm in Suffolk were culled after a number were found to have the H5 strain of avian influenza, identified as "low pathogenic". Read More

Avian influenza H5N8 in Germany

10 February, 2020 An outbreak of avian influenza H5N8 has been reported in backyard poultry (49 laying hens, two geese, six ducks, three pheasants, nine captive birds (canaries) in Bretzfeld, Hohenlohekreis, Baden-Wurttemberg. Read More

IB, Var ll strain was first identified in Germany

2020 - Poultry Science 99:797–800 9 February, 2020 The infectious bronchitis virus Middle-East GI-23 lineage (Var2-like) was observed on a German broiler farm, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, for the first time. The animals suffered from respiratory and nephropathogenic disease. Gross lesions observed during necropsy included tracheitis, aerosacculitis, and nephritis. Tracheal swabs were tested positive for infectious bronchitis virus Middle-East GI-23 lineage (Var2-like) by PCR. Read More

Saudi Arabia: H5N8 on poultry farm

4 February, 2020 Saudi Arabia has reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus on a poultry farm. The outbreak, which occurred in the central Sudair region, killed 22,700 birds.
The other 385,300 birds in the flock were slaughtered. Read More

Salmonellosis - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017

ECDC 31 January, 2020 Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection and an important cause of foodborne outbreaks in the EU/EEA. In 2017, 92,649 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported of which 156 were fatal. The EU/EEA notification rate was 19.6 cases per 100,000 population. The highest notification rates were reported by the Czech Republic (108.5 cases per 100,000 population) and Slovakia (106.5), followed by Hungary and Lithuania. The lowest rate was reported by Portugal. The largest increase in rates from 2016–2017 was observed in Iceland (62%), Ireland (25%) and Portugal (23%).
The highest notification rate of salmonellosis was observed among young children 0–4 years, with 94.1 cases per 100,000 population. The rate in young children was almost three times higher than in older children and eight times as high as in adults 25–64 years. Read More

H5N1 in Denmark

31 January, 2020 Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been confirmed in a commercial poultry holding with organic laying hens at the farm Bremerholm, which is located near Sæderup south of Aalborg. The layers were tested in accordance with the Danish surveillance programme for avian influenza in poultry.
The holding consists of approximately 48,000 organic egg layers. Read More

H5N8 in Israel

31 January, 2020 A Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) was found with neurological clinical signs in the Jordan valley. The eagle had a transmitter so it could be found that on 1 January 2020 he entered the Jordan valley from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and from then, he stayed in the Jordan valley, in the Israeli side. Read More

Italy: Salmonella-contaminated eggs

25 January, 2020 The fear for salmonella contaminated eggs in Italy is rising while the number of recalls in the sector is increasing. Some suspected cases of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis that have registered in France have been linked to organic eggs from Italy. Analysis of other cases in Norway is still ongoing, but the source may be expected to be the same. According to RASFF, the multi-nation outbreak could be traced back to an egg packing center in Italy. The Rapid Community Alert System (RASFF) reported that two countries have reported cases of Salmonella Enteritidis on 09-01-2020, but until now it has not been possible to link individual cases to possible sources. The French authorities and those of other EU Member States have now blocked the distribution of eggs from that Italian center. Read More

Salmonella-infected chicken from Poland banned on the Bulgarian market

24 January, 2020 The Bulgarian Food Safety Agency had blocked the import of three consignments of poultry meat from Poland contaminated with salmonella. The total quantity was 37,150kg of whole chicken and 12,900kg chicken leg.
The meat produced in Poland has been banned from distribution and is not allowed to be traded on the Bulgarian market. It has been identified as part of the enhanced controls undertaken by the Bulgarian Food Safety Agency after 100 tonnes of chicken infected with salmonella was imported from Poland to the Bulgarian market in December 2019. Read More

Citizen petition requesting the ban of 31 Salmonella strains on meat and poultry

22 January, 2020 Marler Clark, a Seattle-based food safety law firm, has petitioned the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service to ban 31 salmonella strains on meat and poultry.
The petition is requesting that the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) declare the following outbreak serovars (serotypes) to be per se adulterants in meat and poultry products:
Salmonella Agona, Anatum, Berta, Blockely, Braenderup, Derby, Dublin, Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, I 4,[5],12:i:-, Infantis, Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Mississippi, Montevideo, Muenchen, Newport, Oranienburg, Panama, Poona, Reading, Saintpaul, Sandiego, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, Stanley, Thompson, Typhi, and Typhimurium. Read More

New report: US meat recalls have increased by 67 percent since 2013

22 January, 2020 How safe is our food? A new report evaluate recalls since 2013.
Key findings from this year’s report include:
-The most hazardous meat and poultry recalls (Class I) have nearly doubled, up 83 percent since 2013. This is a slight increase from 2018. Total meat and poultry recalls are up 67 percent since 2013.
-Recalls of produce and processed foods from the FDA largely held steady, with a 2 percent increase over 2013 levels. Read More

Ukraine and Germany: H5 avian influenza

21 January, 2020 Ukraine has reported an outbreak of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza on a farm in the west-central part of the country (Vinnitsa) the first of such outbreak in nearly three years.
The H5N8 avian influenza strain, has been reported from different European countries in recent weeks.
Germany had detected a case of H5N8 in a wild bird (A wild white-fronted goose, in the eastern German state of Brandenburg), no birds on farms were involved. Read More

Czech Republic: 5th European nation to report HPAI H5N8 in 2020

18 January, 2020 The Czech Republic has its first case of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus in three years after an outbreak was reported on a small poultry farm (12 birds) in the country's central region (Štěpánov nad Svratkou in the Vysočina Region). Read More

H6N1 confirmed in Northern Ireland

16 January, 2020 A case of avian influenza H6N1 strain has been identified in a broiler breeder farm in County Fermanagh. Read More

Campylobacter outbreak in Denmark

Source: Food Safety News 16 January, 2020 Almost 90 people are part of an outbreak in Denmark from Campylobacter after eating chicken meat from one slaughterhouse. Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 122 was identified in patients by whole genome sequencing. This type was also found in chicken meat from one slaughterhouse belonging to HKScan in Vinderup, a town in Northwestern Jutland. Products from this site are sold at all the major Danish retail chains. Read More

Romania confirmed an outbreak of avian influenza

15 January, 2020 An outbreak of H5N8 avian influenza virus was confirmed at a chicken farm in the region of Maramures, in northern Romania. the first such outbreak in nearly three years. Read More

Europe: current avian influenza situation

14 January, 2020 Poland: Eleven outbreaks of H5N8 HPAI have been reported, and a case in a wild bird (hawk).
Slovakia has reported its first H5N8 HPAI case of the 2019/20 season, on 09 January in a small backyard holding in the western county of Nitra of 22 poultry (free range hens).
Hungary confirmed its first outbreak of H5N8 HPAI on 12 January in a commercial poultry establishment (~53,000 turkeys) in the north western county of Komárom-Esztergom,close to the Slovakian border. Read More

Hungary: HPAI H5N8 in Turkeys

13 January, 2020 The National Food Chain Safety Office (Nébih) announced that it has detected the H5N8 strain of avian influenza at a turkey farm (53,500 birds) in Komárom-Esztergom country. Read More

Slovakia: an outbreak of HPAI H5N8

10 January, 2020 Slovakia confirms an outbreak of avian influenza H5N8 in a small poultry farm (backyard poultry) in the village of Zbehy, Nitra district. Read More

California: Newcastle Disease update

4 January, 2020 Over the past month, virulent Newcastle disease cases have increased because people have violated the CDFA VND Regional Quarantine by moving infected birds or contaminated equipment and secondary spread to neighboring flocks. Now there are 20 new cases under investigation, all linked to the recent Bloomington area outbreak. Most of the cases are in San Bernardino County, with two in Riverside County and one in Los Angeles County. Backyard flocks as well as retail pet/feed stores are involved. Read More

Polish avian influenza outbreak spreads

4 January, 2020 Four more outbreaks of avian influenza have been reported across Poland, bringing the total number of incidents in Europe’s largest poultry producer to six.
Outbreaks were confirmed in Wolka Orlowska and Olchowiec Kolonia, both in the Lubelskie region of Poland.
Another outbreak of the H5N8 strain reported in the eastern Lubelskie region at a farm (13,000 guinea fowl) about 500 meters from where two cases in turkeys were confirmed this week. Read More

Poland: HPAI H5N8 on turkey farm

2 January, 2020 Avian Influenza has been detected in turkeys in eastern Poland. 13,000 birds will be slaughtered.
Poland is the largest poultry producer in Europe.
The last outbreak of avian influenza in Poland was recorded in 2017. Read More