Infectious Diseases 2020

Infectious Diseases 2020

Salmonella and Campylobacter in broiler meat in the USA

Foods 2020, 9, 776 18 June, 2020

Poultry is one of the largest sources of animal-based protein in the United States. Two of the most persistent bacteria in poultry processing are Salmonella and Campylobacter. One of the primary causes of foodborne illnesses in the United States is Salmonella, a bacterium commonly found in the digestive tract of infected chickens. Every year, roughly 1.35 million cases of salmonellosis, an infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella, which commonly causes diarrhea and fever, are reported in the United States. Globally, it is estimated that 93.8 million cases are caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella every year. Of these cases, 80.3 million are estimated to be foodborne. Contaminated poultry meat is one of the largest contributors to salmonellosis with some studies suggesting that poultry is associated with 25% of outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens. Another pathogen frequently responsible for foodborne illness is Campylobacter. In the United States, Campylobacter is responsible for an estimated 1.5 million illnesses each year. Globally, Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis with around 96 million cases each year.
Traditionally, chlorine has been the industry standard for decontaminating chicken meat. However, antimicrobials such as peracetic acid, cetylpyridinium chloride, and acidified sodium chlorite have replaced chlorine as primary antimicrobials. Despite current interventions, the emergence of stress-tolerant and biofilm-forming Salmonella and Campylobacter is of primary concern. In an effort to offset growing tolerance from microbes, novel techniques such as cold plasma treatment, electrostatic spraying, and bacteriophage-based applications have been investigated as alternatives to conventional treatments,while new chemical antimicrobials such as Amplon and sodium ferrate are investigated as well. The following review published in Foods, provides an overview of poultry processing in the United States, major microbes in poultry processing, current interventions, emerging issues, and emerging technologies in antimicrobial treatments.