Infectious Diseases 2020

Infectious Diseases 2020

A novel integron-borne aminoglycoside resistance gene

Microbiome 2020; 8: 41 29 March, 2020 Aminoglycoside antibiotics are critically important for treating several types of infections with multi-resistant bacteria. A completely new resistance gene, which is likely to counteract the newest aminoglycoside-drug plazomycin, was recently discovered by scientists in Gothenburg, Sweden.
The bacterial gene the team discovered in river sediment from India does not resemble any known antibiotic resistance gene. The gene is named gar as it provides resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics that carry a garosamine group (garosamine-specific aminoglycoside resistance) after its specificity. The gene occurs in three sequenced, multi-resistant clinical isolates (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one Luteimonas sp.) from Italy and China, respectively, as well as in two food-borne Salmonella enterica isolates from the USA. In all cases, gar has escaped discovery until now. Read More

Campylobacter and consumer knowledge in Germany

Henke et al. BMC Public Health (2020) 20:336 28 March, 2020 Via performing a cross-sectional survey of over 1,000 consumers in Germany, researchers analyzed consumer knowledge about Campylobacter, Salmonella and Toxoplasma. According to findings, nearly 70% of respondents had never heard of Campylobacter, about 20% had heard of Campylobacter but did not know how to protect themselves, and close to 12% knew how to protect themselves from Campylobacter infections. Just over half of respondents (52.2%) who had at least heard of Campylobacter knew that Campylobacter was transmissible via meat. Interestingly, consumer knowledge of Toxoplasma was better compared with that of Campylobacter, and respondents seemed to be most knowledgeable about Salmonella. Overall, consumers in Germany seemed to be poorly informed about Campylobacter and the transmission route via meat. Among the three pathogens, consumers were best informed about Salmonella. Read More

Additional turkey flocks with LPAI in North Carolina

Source: EGG‑ 27 March, 2020 According to a statutory submission to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Dr. Mark Davidson, Associate Administrator of the USDA-APHIS reported additional cases of H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza in asymptomatic turkey flocks on March 24th. The diagnoses were obtained as a result of surveillance implemented in the infected zone following recognition of the initial cases involving a parent flock and two grow-out flocks in Anson and Union Counties in North Carolina on March 13th.
As of March 24th eight flocks totaling 186,000 turkeys have been depleted with a range in farm population of 11,000 to 45,000. In addition to the two North Carolina counties a single flock of 36,000 turkeys in Chesterfield County, South Carolina was identified as being infected. Read More

Bayern-Ei stands for one of the worst food scandals in Germany

27 March, 2020 Stefan Pohlmann, was found guilty as the responsible manager of an egg production enterprise (Bayern-Ei) for a serious Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) outbreak in 2014. He was given a suspended prison sentence of one year and nine months. Stefan Pohlmann was in custody from August 2015 to May 2016. Stefan Pohlmann was found guilty of commercial fraud in 190 cases, negligent bodily harm in 26 cases and told to pay €350,000 ($375,000) and his company Bayern-Ei (‘Bavarian Egg’) was ordered to pay $1.27 million in compensation.
The Bayern-Ei company was one of the largest egg producers in Germany with four locations in Lower Bavaria and one in the Czech Republic. Read More

Avian Influenza in Europe

26 March, 2020 Hungary: Hungarian food safety authority Nébih said it detected avian influenza virus H5N8 at a duck farm in Bács-Kiskun County (South Hungary). Nébih said it had started to destroy the 32,000 ducks on the farm.
It has also established a 3km protection zone and a 10km surveillance zone around the site.
Nébih said the obligation to keep poultry in enclosed areas is still in force.
Avian Influenza was last detected in Hungary in January 2020. Read More

USA: H7N3 in three turkey flocks

17 March, 2020 As part of routine surveillance for H5/H7 Avian Influenza, H7 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) was detected in a commercial turkey breeder and two turkey meat flocks in Anson County, Anson, North Carolina. Total animal affected: 90,000 birds. Sequencing determined subtype/pathotype of H7N3 on all premises. Clinical signs noted: slight drop in egg production in turkey breeder flock. Plan for confirmed positive flocks is euthanasia (foam method) and disposal. The USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture are conducting a comprehensive epidemiological investigation and have implemented enhanced surveillance and testing related to this finding. Read More

Germany: H5N8 in poultry farm

16 March, 2020 A case of H5N8 avian influenza has been confirmed in a poultry farm in Bad Lausick near Leipzig (eastern German state of Saxony). All poultry on the farm has been slaughtered. Read More

Report: The burden of foodborne disease in the UK 2018

13 March, 2020 This Report contains the results of a five year programme to build a Cost of Illness (COI) model, which for the first time allows us to estimate the burden of foodborne illness in the UK. Over the last five years an extensive programme of work has been undertaken by the FSA economists, in collaboration with external experts and academics, to estimate the societal burden of foodborne illness in the UK. Working with academics from leading UK universities, the FSA economists have built a Cost of Illness (COI) model, whose objective is to identify and measure all the costs of a particular disease, including the direct, indirect, and intangible dimensions. The output, expressed in monetary terms, is an estimate of the total burden of foodborne illness to society. The COI analysis provides decision-makers with a perspective on the magnitude of the societal burden of a particular disease or condition. Read More

Ireland: Avian Influenza confirmed at poultry farm

12 March, 2020 A case of avian influenza has been confirmed at a farm in County Monaghan, Ireland.
According to the Department of Agriculture, a case of "avian influenza" has been identified in a commercial layer flock. The virus strain involved is a low pathogenic H6N1. Read More

Scotland: Campylobacter infections cost £3m a year

12 March, 2020 Food Standards Scotland (FSS) has published new research on Campylobacter - the most common cause of bacterial food poisoning in Scotland - which provides important new evidence on those at greater risk of infection, factors influencing severity of illness as well as the estimated healthcare cost of infection for the years 2013-2017.
The research, conducted between 2013 and 2019, was undertaken by Health Protection Scotland and the University of Aberdeen on behalf of FSS. Read More

New Zealand sets goal to reduce Campylobacter

10 March, 2020 Deputy director-general for New Zealand Food Safety Bryan Wilson announced a new goal to significantly reduce foodborne Campylobacter poisoning by 20 per cent by 2025. Campylobacter is the most common cause of notifiable foodborne illness in New Zealand.
Working with the poultry industry, New Zealand Food Safety's risk management strategy has achieved more than a 50% reduction in foodborne cases since 2006. But, the rate of gastrointestinal illness caused by campylobacter remains high. Read More

EFSA: Antimicrobial resistance in the EU

6 March, 2020 Salmonella and Campylobacter are becoming increasingly resistant to ciprofloxacin, one of the antibiotics of choice for treating infections caused by these bacteria. The conclusion is part of the latest report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonoses released by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which also presents some positive trends in the animal sector.
The latest data from humans, animals and food show that a large proportion of Salmonella bacteria are multidrug-resistant (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). In humans, resistance to ciprofloxacin is common, particularly in certain types of Salmonella, and resistance to high concentrations of ciprofloxacin increased overall from 1.7% (2016) to 4.6% (2018). Read More

More outbreaks of H5N8 in Poland

27 February, 2020 Poland has reported seven new HPAI H5N8 outbreaks on commercial farms. In the period February 7-22, more than 170,000 poultry were lost to the disease in these outbreaks, including 35,000 birds that died. Affected premises were spread across five provinces in central Poland, including the first cases in Opole and Lodz. Read More

Two new avian influenza outbreaks in Bulgaria

25 February, 2020 Bulgaria's food safety agency authorities reported two new outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza in the southern part of the Balkan country.One of the new outbreaks was found at a farm with more than 55,000 egg-laying hens in Trilistnik. The other outbreak was reported at a farm with more than 11,000 ducks in Padarsko. Read More

Czech republic: H5N8 avian influenza

18 February, 2020 Czech authorities will cull nearly 140,000 turkeys (7500) and broilers (130,000) at a poultry farm due to avian influenza H5N8 outbreak. Read More

Bulgaria: First avian influenza report for 2020

17 February, 2020 The Bulgarian Food Safety Agency (BFSA) has reported the first outbreak of avian influenza in Bulgaria for 2020. The avian influenza strain is the highly pathogenic H5N8 at a duck breeding farm in Rakovski near Plovdiv. Read More

Scotland: Campylobacter annual surveillance report - 2019

12 February, 2020 During 2019, 5975 laboratory reports of Campylobacter were received by HPS (Health Protection Scotland). This was a decrease when compared with 2018 (6096 reports) and an increase on 2017 (5795 reports), but within the annual variation observed over the past ten years.
The overall rate of Campylobacter in Scotland in 2019 was 109.9 reports per 100,000 population, compared with 112.1 reports per 100,000 population in 2018. Read More

Scotland: Salmonella annual surveillance report - 2019

12 February, 2020 During 2019, there were 756 isolates of human non-typhoidal Salmonella reported to Health Protection Scotland. This was in line with the 751 cases reported in 2018, which was a decrease on the 840 cases reported in 2017. Most isolates were reported during the summer months. There is an additional peak later in October which co-incides with the mid-term school break. This trend is consisent with previous years.
The two most commonly reported serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium which accounted for 58% of all Salmonella isolates reported in 2019. S. Enteritidis remains the most common serotype, with 297 (40%) reports. This was an increase of 8% on the 275 reported in 2018. Reports of Salmonella Typhimurium decreased very slightly in 2019, with 135 (18%) reports compared to 139 in 2018 - and compared to183 reported in 2017. Read More

Low pathogenic avian influenza confirmed in Scotland

11 February, 2020 Low pathogenic avian influenza (AI), has been confirmed in a Scottish free range laying flock.
In December, all 27,000 birds at a commercial poultry farm in Suffolk were culled after a number were found to have the H5 strain of avian influenza, identified as "low pathogenic". Read More

Avian influenza H5N8 in Germany

10 February, 2020 An outbreak of avian influenza H5N8 has been reported in backyard poultry (49 laying hens, two geese, six ducks, three pheasants, nine captive birds (canaries) in Bretzfeld, Hohenlohekreis, Baden-Wurttemberg. Read More

IB, Var ll strain was first identified in Germany

2020 - Poultry Science 99:797–800 9 February, 2020 The infectious bronchitis virus Middle-East GI-23 lineage (Var2-like) was observed on a German broiler farm, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, for the first time. The animals suffered from respiratory and nephropathogenic disease. Gross lesions observed during necropsy included tracheitis, aerosacculitis, and nephritis. Tracheal swabs were tested positive for infectious bronchitis virus Middle-East GI-23 lineage (Var2-like) by PCR. Read More

Saudi Arabia: H5N8 on poultry farm

4 February, 2020 Saudi Arabia has reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus on a poultry farm. The outbreak, which occurred in the central Sudair region, killed 22,700 birds.
The other 385,300 birds in the flock were slaughtered. Read More

Salmonellosis - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017

ECDC 31 January, 2020 Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection and an important cause of foodborne outbreaks in the EU/EEA. In 2017, 92,649 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported of which 156 were fatal. The EU/EEA notification rate was 19.6 cases per 100,000 population. The highest notification rates were reported by the Czech Republic (108.5 cases per 100,000 population) and Slovakia (106.5), followed by Hungary and Lithuania. The lowest rate was reported by Portugal. The largest increase in rates from 2016–2017 was observed in Iceland (62%), Ireland (25%) and Portugal (23%).
The highest notification rate of salmonellosis was observed among young children 0–4 years, with 94.1 cases per 100,000 population. The rate in young children was almost three times higher than in older children and eight times as high as in adults 25–64 years. Read More

H5N1 in Denmark

31 January, 2020 Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been confirmed in a commercial poultry holding with organic laying hens at the farm Bremerholm, which is located near Sæderup south of Aalborg. The layers were tested in accordance with the Danish surveillance programme for avian influenza in poultry.
The holding consists of approximately 48,000 organic egg layers. Read More

H5N8 in Israel

31 January, 2020 A Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) was found with neurological clinical signs in the Jordan valley. The eagle had a transmitter so it could be found that on 1 January 2020 he entered the Jordan valley from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and from then, he stayed in the Jordan valley, in the Israeli side. Read More

Italy: Salmonella-contaminated eggs

25 January, 2020 The fear for salmonella contaminated eggs in Italy is rising while the number of recalls in the sector is increasing. Some suspected cases of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis that have registered in France have been linked to organic eggs from Italy. Analysis of other cases in Norway is still ongoing, but the source may be expected to be the same. According to RASFF, the multi-nation outbreak could be traced back to an egg packing center in Italy. The Rapid Community Alert System (RASFF) reported that two countries have reported cases of Salmonella Enteritidis on 09-01-2020, but until now it has not been possible to link individual cases to possible sources. The French authorities and those of other EU Member States have now blocked the distribution of eggs from that Italian center. Read More

Salmonella-infected chicken from Poland banned on the Bulgarian market

24 January, 2020 The Bulgarian Food Safety Agency had blocked the import of three consignments of poultry meat from Poland contaminated with salmonella. The total quantity was 37,150kg of whole chicken and 12,900kg chicken leg.
The meat produced in Poland has been banned from distribution and is not allowed to be traded on the Bulgarian market. It has been identified as part of the enhanced controls undertaken by the Bulgarian Food Safety Agency after 100 tonnes of chicken infected with salmonella was imported from Poland to the Bulgarian market in December 2019. Read More

Citizen petition requesting the ban of 31 Salmonella strains on meat and poultry

22 January, 2020 Marler Clark, a Seattle-based food safety law firm, has petitioned the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service to ban 31 salmonella strains on meat and poultry.
The petition is requesting that the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) declare the following outbreak serovars (serotypes) to be per se adulterants in meat and poultry products:
Salmonella Agona, Anatum, Berta, Blockely, Braenderup, Derby, Dublin, Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, I 4,[5],12:i:-, Infantis, Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Mississippi, Montevideo, Muenchen, Newport, Oranienburg, Panama, Poona, Reading, Saintpaul, Sandiego, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, Stanley, Thompson, Typhi, and Typhimurium. Read More

New report: US meat recalls have increased by 67 percent since 2013

22 January, 2020 How safe is our food? A new report evaluate recalls since 2013.
Key findings from this year’s report include:
-The most hazardous meat and poultry recalls (Class I) have nearly doubled, up 83 percent since 2013. This is a slight increase from 2018. Total meat and poultry recalls are up 67 percent since 2013.
-Recalls of produce and processed foods from the FDA largely held steady, with a 2 percent increase over 2013 levels. Read More

Ukraine and Germany: H5 avian influenza

21 January, 2020 Ukraine has reported an outbreak of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza on a farm in the west-central part of the country (Vinnitsa) the first of such outbreak in nearly three years.
The H5N8 avian influenza strain, has been reported from different European countries in recent weeks.
Germany had detected a case of H5N8 in a wild bird (A wild white-fronted goose, in the eastern German state of Brandenburg), no birds on farms were involved. Read More

Czech Republic: 5th European nation to report HPAI H5N8 in 2020

18 January, 2020 The Czech Republic has its first case of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus in three years after an outbreak was reported on a small poultry farm (12 birds) in the country's central region (Štěpánov nad Svratkou in the Vysočina Region). Read More

H6N1 confirmed in Northern Ireland

16 January, 2020 A case of avian influenza H6N1 strain has been identified in a broiler breeder farm in County Fermanagh. Read More

Campylobacter outbreak in Denmark

Source: Food Safety News 16 January, 2020 Almost 90 people are part of an outbreak in Denmark from Campylobacter after eating chicken meat from one slaughterhouse. Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 122 was identified in patients by whole genome sequencing. This type was also found in chicken meat from one slaughterhouse belonging to HKScan in Vinderup, a town in Northwestern Jutland. Products from this site are sold at all the major Danish retail chains. Read More

Romania confirmed an outbreak of avian influenza

15 January, 2020 An outbreak of H5N8 avian influenza virus was confirmed at a chicken farm in the region of Maramures, in northern Romania. the first such outbreak in nearly three years. Read More

Europe: current avian influenza situation

14 January, 2020 Poland: Eleven outbreaks of H5N8 HPAI have been reported, and a case in a wild bird (hawk).
Slovakia has reported its first H5N8 HPAI case of the 2019/20 season, on 09 January in a small backyard holding in the western county of Nitra of 22 poultry (free range hens).
Hungary confirmed its first outbreak of H5N8 HPAI on 12 January in a commercial poultry establishment (~53,000 turkeys) in the north western county of Komárom-Esztergom,close to the Slovakian border. Read More

Hungary: HPAI H5N8 in Turkeys

13 January, 2020 The National Food Chain Safety Office (Nébih) announced that it has detected the H5N8 strain of avian influenza at a turkey farm (53,500 birds) in Komárom-Esztergom country. Read More

Slovakia: an outbreak of HPAI H5N8

10 January, 2020 Slovakia confirms an outbreak of avian influenza H5N8 in a small poultry farm (backyard poultry) in the village of Zbehy, Nitra district. Read More

Polish avian influenza outbreak spreads

4 January, 2020 Four more outbreaks of avian influenza have been reported across Poland, bringing the total number of incidents in Europe’s largest poultry producer to six.
Outbreaks were confirmed in Wolka Orlowska and Olchowiec Kolonia, both in the Lubelskie region of Poland.
Another outbreak of the H5N8 strain reported in the eastern Lubelskie region at a farm (13,000 guinea fowl) about 500 meters from where two cases in turkeys were confirmed this week. Read More

California: Newcastle Disease update

4 January, 2020 Over the past month, virulent Newcastle disease cases have increased because people have violated the CDFA VND Regional Quarantine by moving infected birds or contaminated equipment and secondary spread to neighboring flocks. Now there are 20 new cases under investigation, all linked to the recent Bloomington area outbreak. Most of the cases are in San Bernardino County, with two in Riverside County and one in Los Angeles County. Backyard flocks as well as retail pet/feed stores are involved. Read More

Poland: HPAI H5N8 on turkey farm

2 January, 2020 Avian Influenza has been detected in turkeys in eastern Poland. 13,000 birds will be slaughtered.
Poland is the largest poultry producer in Europe.
The last outbreak of avian influenza in Poland was recorded in 2017. Read More