Infectious Diseases 2017

Infectious Diseases 2017

WHO: Human infection with HPAI H7N9

27 February, 2017 On 18 February 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) reported to WHO the results of genetic sequencing on virus isolates from two previously reported cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus from Guangdong province. Changes at the cleavage site of the HA gene suggestive of being highly pathogenic to poultry was confirmed by the Chinese National Influenza Centre of the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC).
The two cases were reported through International Health Regulations (IHR) notification on 19 January 2017. Read More

UK: AI confirmed near Haltwhistle, Northumberland

24 February, 2017 The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has confirmed that Avian Influenza (AI) H5N8 has been identified in a backyard flock of chickens near Haltwhistle, Northumberland. Read More

Spain: H5N8 at duck farm In Girona

23 February, 2017 Spain reports a case of H5N8 avian influenza on a farm ducks in Girona.
17,000 birds will be culled. Read More

China: high-path H7N9 in market poultry

22 February, 2017 The highly pathogenic form of the H7N9 avian influenza strain has been detected at live-bird markets in Guangdong province for the first time. Since it was first detected in early 2013, the H7N9 virus has circulated in poultry as a low-pathogenic strain. Read More

Avian Influenza: France to slaughter 600,000 more ducks

21 February, 2017 The French government has ordered a cull of all 600,000 surviving ducks in the south-western Landes region, where 25 percent of France's foie gras is produced. Some 1.9 million ducks and geese have already been culled and a further 1.3 million have died in this year's outbreak of the H5N8 virus in France and Agriculture Minister Stéphane Le Foll announced Tuesday that the 600,000 surviving in the Landes will be slaughtered. Read More

H5N6 spreads to Hsinchu Countyת Taiwan

20 February, 2017 Hsinchu County in northern Taiwan reported its first case of H5N6 this year, as 400 abandoned dead chickens tested positive for the pathogenic avian influenza virus.
Police were notified about a large pile of rotting, lifeless chickens nearby an industrial road in Hukou area in Hsinchu on Feb. 16, 2017, maggots found in the carcass and the pungent odor emanating at the site suggested the chickens had been decaying for at least three to four days. Read More

Two H7N9 `Variants' Isolated From Human Cases

20 February, 2017 Guangdong's Provincial Center for Disease Control and Disease reports that two virus samples collected from human hosts last month suggest that the H7N9 virus variants became more pathogenic in birds. Read More

Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt

18 February, 2017 A recent study in Gut Pathogens found that Salmonella typhimurium and enteritidis are major contaminants of broiler flocks in Egypt. This study was conducted in 41 broiler flocks located in Kafr El-Sheikh Province in Delta Egypt. Twenty flocks of 1-week-old birds and 21 flocks of 5-week-old birds were investigated. In total 615 clinical samples were collected from broiler flocks from different organs (liver, intestinal content and gallbladder). Salmonella infection was identified in 17 (41%) broiler chicken flocks and 67 Salmonella isolates were collected. Read More

H5N8 In Cameroon

15 February, 2017 Cameroon reported H5N8 in peacocks, ducks, and chickens in Makilingaye in the north of the country, close to the border with Nigeria. Read More

Chicken meat as reservoir of E. Coli carrying MCR-1 genes in South America

15 February, 2017 The detection and rapid spread of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying the mcr-1 gene has created an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. As part of a local investigation into the presence of colistin-resistant bacteria, Brazilian researchers collected 41 chicken samples from markets in Sao Paulo and tested them for susceptibility to polymixin B and colistin and for the presence of the MCR-1 gene, which confers resistance to colistin. They found eight clonally unrelated colistin-resistant E coli isolates carrying MCR-1. Read More

FLI (Germany): Risk estimation on HPAI H5

14 February, 2017 The detection of HPAIV H5N8 in 26 European countries (listed chronologically by date of report: Hungary, Poland, Croatia, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, France, Romania, Serbia, Great Britain, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Slovak Republic, Italy, Ireland, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Portugal, Macedonia, and Belgium) and the rapid distribution of the virus indicate a further highly dynamic spatial spread of the infection. The number of cases reported from various parts of Europe increases daily; often also birds kept in zoological gardens and animal parks are affected. In Germany, the case numbers in wild birds and the number of outbreaks in bird holdings (69) have reached an unprecedented level. Read More

Israel: a H5N8 outbreak in a Turkey farm

13 February, 2017 The highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus has been confirmed in turkey farm in Beit Herut.
3,000 birds 8.5 weeks old will be culled. Read More

Bosnia: first case of H5N8

13 February, 2017 Bosnia reported its first case of avian influenza H5N8 at a hen farm in the northwestern town of Prijedor. Read More

UK: New H5N8 Outbreak In Suffolk

DEFRA 13 February, 2017 The UK’s Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer has today (13 February) announced an initial 10km Temporary Control Zone around a poultry premises near Redgrave, in the district of mid-Suffolk, following investigation into a suspected case of Avian Influenza where laboratory analysis has identified the presence of H5N8. Read More

Czech Republic: H5N5 in a Zoo

13 February, 2017 H5N5 virus was confirmed in dead swans at Liberec Zoo, in the north central part of the county. Read More

Taiwan: H5N6 in a turkey farm

12 February, 2017 Taiwan reports an outbreak of H5N6 HPAI in a turkey farm in Tainan.
Last week, a dead goose in Hualien County was found to be infected with the H5N6 virus, the first confirmed H5N6 infection in the country. Read More

Italy: H5N8 in a turkey flock

6 February, 2017 Italy reported one more outbreak, this time affecting a turkey farm in Emilia-Romagna region in the north. The outbreak started on Feb 1, and, of 22,800 birds, the virus sickened 4,000 and killed 400. Read More

Australia: Raw egg warning after 70 contract Salmonella

6 February, 2017 Salmonella outbreaks in five locations across the state has prompted a warning to Queenslanders to stop playing Russian roulette with uncooked eggs and meat.
Health Minister Cameron Dick said more than 70 people were infected by the five outbreaks of the food-borne bacteria, which can lead to death in those with weakened immune systems. “While eggs are a great source of protein and are important for a healthy diet, if you eat them raw or undercooked, you really are playing Russian roulette with your health,” Mr Dick said.
The Minister said three of the current outbreaks across the State have been linked to more than 30 confirmed cases from raw or undercooked egg in Brisbane, while a further 37 people were infected after consuming undercooked pork in Mount Isa. Around 5000 cases of Salmonella are reported in Queensland each year. Chief Health Officer Dr Jeanette Young said the rate of Salmonella infection in Queensland is concerning. Read More

Taiwan: H5N6 in dead goose

6 February, 2017 One dead young goose was found on a country road in Hualien County by the Wild Bird Society of Taipei and was sent to the National Laboratory (Animal Health Research Institute, AHRI) on 2 February 2017. H5N6 subtype HPAI was detected and confirmed by the AHRI in the evening of 5 February 2017. Read More

Israel: H5N8 in a turkey flock

5 February, 2017 Israel reports an outbreak of avian influenza H5N8 in a turkey flock in Aviel.
60,000 birds will be culled. Read More

Poland: H5N5 in mute swans

3 February, 2017 Poland announced the discovery of H5N5 HPAI incarnation near the border with the Czech Republic. Read More

Belgium: H5N8 In hobby farm

2 February, 2017 The HPAI H5N8 strain was identified in a hobby farm in the town of Lebbeke (north of Brussels). Read More

Israel: H5N8 in ducks

1 February, 2017 Israel, which reported several outbreaks of H5N8 in wild birds, chickens and turkeys reported for the first time an outbreak in breeding ducks. Read More

DEFRA: Update on H5N8

31 January, 2017 Continuing investigations have confirmed the presence of H5N8 avian influenza at linked premises in Wyre, Lancashire. Read More

Macedonia: H5N8 in backyard birds

30 January, 2017 Macedonia reported an outbreal of H5N8 in backyard birds in Moroista, Struga. Read More

Germany: HPAI H5N2 Detected In WIld Birds In Baden-Württemberg

Source: Avian Flu Diary 30 January, 2017 One of the hallmarks of Clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses (which include both H5N8 and H5N6 subtypes) has been its enhanced ability to successfully reassort with other (mostly LPAI) viruses it encounters in its travels, and in doing so spinning off new genotypes, and occasionally, new subtypes as well.
Although nearly all of the reports during the fall of 2016 were of H5N8, in December several nations (Italy, The Netherlands, and Montenegro) reported the discovery of a new HPAI H5N5 reassortant virus in a small number of wild birds. A week ago - and for the first time in Europe - HPAI H5N5 Was Detected In A German Poultry Operation. Three days later HPAI H5N5 Was Detected At Two More Poultry Farms. Read More

Greece: H5N5 in a mute swan

30 January, 2017 A mute swan in the Village of Sostis, was found positive for H5N5. Read More

UK: Campylobacter data 2006 to 2015

27 January, 2017 The Food Standards Agency (FSA) estimates that Campylobacter causes more than 100 deaths a year and costs the UK economy about £900m.
The region that reported the highest number of Campylobacter cases was the South East with 9,489.
54% of Campylobacter cases were male.
The 50-59 year age group had the highest number of cases.
The peak month for Campylobacter reporting in 2015 was June. Read More

Slovenia: H5N5 in dead swans

27 January, 2017 The Slovenia's Administration for Food Safety, Veterinary and Plant Protection reports that 3 swans found dead along the river Krka in the Brežice municipality have tested positive for H5N5. Read More

UK: Avian influenza confirmed at a farm in Wyre, Lancashire

DEFRA 27 January, 2017 The UK’s Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer has confirmed H5N8 avian influenza in a flock of pheasants at a farm in Wyre, Lancashire.
This case was proactively identified as part of a routine investigation of premises traced as a result of confirmation of the disease in Lancashire earlier this week. There is a business link between the two premises.
The flock is estimated to contain approximately 1,000 birds. Read More

Avian influenza confirmed at a farm near Boston, Lincolnshire

DEFRA 26 January, 2017 H5N8 has been confirmed at a turkey rearing farm near Boston, Lincolnshire.
The flock is estimated to contain approximately 19,500 birds. A number have died and the remaining live birds at the premises will be culled. Read More

Germany: H5N5 is spreading

26 January, 2017 H5N5 was detected in two turkey farms in the sites of Grevenkop and Elskop.
Approximately 15,300 birds will be culled.
Both farms are apparently owned by the same company as the first outbreak. Read More

H9N2 in a Chinese baby

26 January, 2017 One new laboratory-confirmed human case of A(H9N2) virus infection was reported to WHO from China in a seven-month-old girl from Guangdong province. The case developed mild illness on 11 December 2016, was not hospitalized and has recovered. She had exposure to a live poultry market prior to illness onset. Read More

Italy: H5N8 in commercial laying hens

26 January, 2017 On 25 January 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 an industrial laying hens farm in Rovigo province (Veneto region). Read More

Israel: Avian influenza in a layer flock

25 January, 2017 H5N8 was detected in Ometz-Israel, in a commercial laying flock.
40,000 birds will be culled. Read More

Germany: H5N5 in commercial poultry

24 January, 2017 Germany reports the first isolation in Europe of H5N5 HPAI strain in a commercial poultry production in in Schleswig-Holstein. Read More

Avian influenza confirmed at a farm in Wyre, Lancashire

24 January, 2017 The UK’s Chief Veterinary Officer has confirmed H5N8 avian influenza in a flock of farmed breeding pheasants at a premises in Wyre, Lancashire. Read More

Italy: a second outbreak of H5N8

24 January, 2017 On 23 January 2017, a second outbreak of HPAI subtype H5N8 was confirmed in a fattening turkeys farm located near Venice lagoon in Venice province (Veneto region). At the time of the epidemiological inquiry (24/01/2017), 22.300 male turkeys of 113 days old were present in the farm. The birds showed neurological symptoms and increased mortality in two out of the 6 sheds present. This farm is part of a national poultry Company. Read More

Italy: the first H5N8 case detected in the commercial sector

23 January, 2017 On 21 January 2017, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 samples collected from an industrial fattening turkeys farm in Venice province (Veneto region). On 23 January 2017, the NRL characterized the virus as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. The birds were sampled after the farm veterinarian reported an increase in mortality rates. During epidemiological inquiry, 20,500 male turkeys were present in the farm and in one of the four sheds of the farm there was increased mortality (10%) and symptomatic animals. Further analysis of the virus are ongoing. Read More

Bangladesh: H5N8 at poultry farm in Dhaka

23 January, 2017 Bangladesh reported an outbreak of HPAI H5N1 at a poultry farm in Dhaka. Of 3,000 Sonali type poultry at risk from the outbreak, 732 died from the virus and the rest were slaughtered. Read More

H5N8 in Kuwait

23 January, 2017 Kuwait reported its first highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza outbreak. Read More

Chile: second case of LPAI H7

19 January, 2017 A second case of low pathogenic H7 avian influenza was confirmed in a turkey farm in El Melon district of Nogales, in the region of Valparaiso - Chile. Read More

Greece: First case of H5N8 in domestic birds

18 January, 2017 Greece reported an outbreak of avian influenza H5N8 in a commercial laying flock.
The farm is located in Milia Area.
28,000 birds will be culled. Read More

Does H5N8 viruses have the potential to infect humans?

Scientific Reports - 17 January 2017 18 January, 2017 A recent study in Scientific Reports found that H5N8 viruses can rapidly acquire virulence markers in mammalian hosts; thus, rapid spread as well as repeated viral introduction into the hosts may significantly increase the risk of human infection and elevate pandemic potential. Read More

Israel: turkey farms continue to be affected by avian influenza

17 January, 2017 Another turkey farm in Israel has been reported as H5N8 positive.
The farm is located in Kibbutz Magal, 38,000 birds, 13 weeks old. Read More

Israel reports another outbreak of H5

16 January, 2017 Israel reports today another outbreak of H5 (probably H5N8) in a turkey flock.
The flock is located in Kfar Monash 6 km south-est to the outbreak in Kfar-Vitkin. Read More

Avian influenza confirmed at a farm in East Lindsey, Lincolnshire

16 January, 2017 The UK’s Chief Veterinary Officer has confirmed H5N8 avian influenza in a flock of turkeys at a farm in East Lindsey, Lincolnshire.
This follows confirmation of the disease in a flock of turkeys on a nearby farm on 16 December 2016. There is unlikely to be a direct link to the previous case but a full investigation is under way to confirm this. Read More

Uganda: H5N8 in wild and domestic birds

15 January, 2017 Uganda announced Sunday it had detected avian influenza among migratory birds and domestic birds. The virus had been detected in two locationss, one near Entebbe, on the banks of Lake Victoria, and another in the Masaka distict about 120 kilometres (75 miles) west of Kampala.
Five domestic ducks and a hen in Masaka were also infected. Read More

Bulgaria: avian influenza at over 50 farms

14 January, 2017 A virulent avian influenza virus, H5N8 has spread to 55 poultry farms in Bulgaria prompting the veterinary authorities to announce a cull of some 430,000 birds since it was first detected in the middle of December.
Bulgaria has imposed a nationwide ban on poultry markets and on the hunting of game birds, and has already spent over a million levs ($543,714) to cull birds in a bid to contain the outbreak. Read More

Egypt: H5N8 in backyard poultry

14 January, 2017 H5N8 HPAI was responsible for an outbreak in backyard birds in Sharqia governorate in the north. Ducks and chickens were involved. Read More

UK: Avian influenza in Abbotsbury swannery, Dorset

13 January, 2017 The H5N8 strain of avian influenza has been confirmed in nine mute swans but testing stops once the presence of the disease has been established so it is not known how many have been struck by the disease. Nine dead swans have tested positive for HPAI H5N8 strain of virus at site where about 80 birds have died so far this winter.
Measures are being taken to stop the disease spreading to poultry flocks but the 1,000 free-flying swans at Abbotsbury are wild and it is not possible to completely confine them. Read More

Slovenia: first report of H5N8

12 January, 2017 Slovenia reported three outbreaks, all involving wild mute swans found dead near ponds and the Drava River near Maribor, the country's second-largest city. Read More

Spain: H5N8 HPAI

12 January, 2017 Spain reported a case of the highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza strain in wild geese in the northern part of the country. Read More

Italy: H5N8 & H5N5 HPAI

11 January, 2017 30/12/2016 – On 28 December 2016 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N5 samples obtained from organs of a wild bird found dead in Friuli Venezia Giulia Region. The positive bird was a Eurasian wigeon (Anas Penelope) collected along with other two ducks of the same species in Grado lagoon, a wetland in Gorizia province. Further analysis of the detected virus are ongoing. Read More

Japan: H5N6 summary of avian influenza outbreaks

10 January, 2017 7 outbreaks of H5N6 HPAI were confirmed in farm animals, situation as for 9 January 2017. Read More

H5 Avian Influenza in a Wild Mallard Duck in Montana

9 January, 2017 The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has detected the presence of Eurasian/North American reassortant H5N2 avian influenza in a wild mallard duck in Fergus County, Montana. No illness or mortalities in domestic poultry in the U.S. have been detected.
The sample, taken from a hunter-harvested bird through routine surveillance, was tested at the Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and forwarded to USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa. Characterization of the sample is ongoing. Read More

A(H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Germany, 2016

EID, Vol. 23, No. 4 - April 2017 6 January, 2017 In late May 2016, a group B clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 virus was detected in dead and hunted wild birds at Lake Uvs-Nuur, at the Russia–Mongolia border. On November 7, 2016, many dead tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) were found at Lake Plön in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and at Lake Constance in Baden-Württemberg, southern Germany; most were positive for H5N8. The epidemic among wild birds continued and spread toward the center of the country. As of December 2016, several backyard holdings, 4 zoos, and a few large commercial operations were also affected. Direct or indirect contact with wild birds was the most likely route of virus introduction into the backyard holdings and zoos. Despite the generally high standards of commercial operations, possible biosecurity gaps were identified. Read More

Avian influenza confirmed in backyard flock in Yorkshire

6 January, 2017 The UK’s Chief Veterinary Officer has confirmed H5N8 avian influenza in a small backyard flock near Settle in North Yorkshire. Read More

Chile: avian influenza detected in a Turkey flock

5 January, 2017 Chile has detected avian influenza H7 at a turkey production plant run by poultry producer Agrosuper in the country's central Valparaiso region. All affected birds (350,000) will be culled. No data regarding the N type were given.
Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. Read More

Genetic characteristion of H5N6 viruses from South Korea

Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 1, 05 January 2017 5 January, 2017 A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Read More

Slovenia confirms first case of H5N8

4 January, 2017 Slovenia confirmed its first case of H5N8 avian influenza, detected in a swan in the town of Pragersko some 120 km (75 miles) northeast of the capital Ljubljana. Read More

Czechs reports avian influenza cases

4 January, 2017 Authorities in the Czech Republic have reported cases of the HPAI southeast of the country.
The virus had been detected in dead swans in Moravia and in family farms in Moravsky Krumlov and Ivancice.
This is the first case of avian influenza in the country this year.
Infected premises in Ivancice and Moravsky Krumlov were quarantined. Read More

Newcastle Disease: the titer needed to protect commercial layers

Research in Veterinary Science 111 (2017) 63–66 4 January, 2017 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection causes serious problems in laying chickens, like reducing egg production, increasing rate of abnormal eggs in spite of strict vaccination in layer farms program. A new evaluation system is needed to show complete protection of the immunization in laying chickens based on the egg-laying performance, rather than clinical signs of the disease.
In a study, by a group of Chinese researchers, laying chickens with different anti-NDV HI (hemagglutination-inhibition) antibody titer after vaccination were divided into different groups. These chickens were then challenged with field isolated highly virulent NDV strains. Read More

Avian influenza in Wales

4 January, 2017 A case of avian influenza H5N8 has been confirmed in a backyard flock of chickens and ducks in Carmanthenshire, Wales. Read More

Israel: H5N8 in Nahalal

2 January, 2017 Israel reports a new case of H5N8 in fattening Turkeys in Nahalal. The flock size is 20,000 birds, and they are 8.5 weeks old - in 8 buidings. Read More

Salmonellosis in Australia

Risk Anal. 2016 36(3):561-70 2 January, 2017 Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. A new research estimates the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010. 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases were attributed to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. Read More

Avian Influenza A(H5N8), clade 2.3.4.4B in wild aquatic birds, Russia-2016

EID, Vol. 23, No. 2 - February 2017 1 January, 2017 Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 was first isolated from a goose in 1996 in Guangdong China (Gs/GD). This virus evolved into multiple hemagglutinin (HA) genetic clades and underwent reassortment with different neuraminidase and internal genes to generate subtype H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 Gs/GD HPAIV, which first appeared in an outbreak in poultry in China in 2013, followed closely by outbreaks in South Korea in January 2014. During these outbreaks, 2 distinct groups of H5N8 viruses were identified; group A (Buan-like) and group B (Gochang-like). There have been no further reports of group B virus since its original detection in China and South Korea during 2014. In contrast, in early 2014, group A viruses predominated in South Korea. On the basis of aquatic bird migration patterns, it is hypothesized that HPAIV (H5N8) reached Siberia during the 2014 spring bird migration. Read More