What's new ? - 2018

What's new ? - 2018

Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance & antibiotic usage in animals in the Netherlands- 2017

MARAN 2018 4 July, 2018

Antibiotic Usage: Sales of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products (AVMP's) in 2017 (181 tonnes) showed an increase of 3% compared to 2016 (176 tonnes). The use of antibiotics of critical importance to human health care (especially cephalosporins of 3rd and 4th generation) is reduced to an absolute minimum, even in the unmonitored sectors. Import of these AVMP's from other EU member states is not monitored in sales data, but if used in the monitored animal sectors, veterinarians are obliged to report these VMP’s.
Antimicrobial resistance: In 2017 S. Enteritidis (25.6%) followed by S. Typhimurium (15.9%) together with the monophasic variant of Typhimurium: S. enterica subspecies enterica 1,4,[5],12:i:- (15.7%), were most frequently isolated from humans suffering from salmonellosis. In poultry (including poultry products and broilers), the number of S. Paratyphi B var. Java was equal to 2016. The most isolated serovar in poultry meat in 2017 was S. Heidelberg. The highest proportions of resistance were observed in the S. Heidelberg, monophasic S. Typhimurium and in S. Kentucky, and to a lesser extent in S. Typhimurium. Ciprofloxacin resistance was most common amongst isolates from humans and poultry. Predominant serovars were S. Kentucky (81.3% resistant), S. Infantis (26.2%) and Enteritidis (21.5%). Cefotaxime resistance was detected in 67.6% of the Salmonella isolates obtained from (outside EU) imported poultry products. Proportions of resistance in C. jejuni from caecal samples of broilers and meat thereof were traditionally high for quinolones and tetracycline and did not substantially change in 2017, compared to 2016. Resistance to macrolides was rarely detected in isolates from livestock and humans and almost exclusively found in C. coli isolates from broilers and pigs. Overall, resistance proportions were higher in C. coli than in C. jejuni isolates. Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter isolates from human patients is still high (with an increase in 2017), which is a concern for public health. Resistance to erythromycin, first choice antibiotic in human medicine for campylobacteriosis, remained low. 
Colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was identified at a low-level in E. coli from livestock (1.2%) and at higher levels in retail meat from chicken (7.7%), but not in Salmonella. 
It can be concluded that the sales of antibiotics for animals remained stable compared to 2016. In 2017 a clear reduction in antibiotic use was only observed in broilers and turkeys, while in use pigs and veal calves showed a small reduction and use in dairy cattle showed a small increase. The use of antibiotics of critical importance to human health care (especially cephalosporins of 3rd and 4th generation) remains to be very minimal.